The Bonda language, also known as Bondo or Remo, is an indigenous language spoken in Odisha, formerly known as Southern Odisha, in India. It had 2,568 speakers, all in Odisha, according to the 1951 Census of India, increasing to approximately 9,000 speakers in 2002 according to SIL.
The Bonda language is an indigenous language belonging to the Southern subgroup of the Munda branch of the Austroasiatic language family. Bonda is a spoken language with no traditional written system recorded. Bonda is a part of the Gutob-Remo branch, due to the similarities Bonda shares with another Southern Munda Language named Gutob
The Bonda language derives its name from the tribe of the Bonda people, an indigenos group located in Odisha known as the Bonda Highlanders. In their native language, the Bonda people regard themselves as "Remo', which translates to human, and derive their language name from that root, calling their language as the human language or 'Remosam' in their native tongue
The language differs slightly, classified according to whether it can be categorized as Plains Remo (Bonda) or Hill Remo (Bonda).
This is a subdivision of Bonda, localized in 35 villages throughout the Khairpat within the Malkangiri district in Odisha. In 1941, 2,565 people categorized the Plains Remo. That number nearly doubled in 1971, with 4,764 people classifying themselves as Plains Remo. The increase in population was not correlated with language extension. There are 3,500 speakers as of 2002, but few are monolingual.
In Bonda, primary stress is placed on the last syllable in a word, syllables with diphthongs, glottal stops, or checked consonants. However, Plains Remo primarily stresses the second syllable in a word. Bonda words can have a maximum of 5 syllables.
Diphthongs are placed either in the beginning or middle of a word, usually used in combination of two different vowel types.
|otoi||not to be|
There are 33 consonants in the Bonda language.
Age and gender serve as classification denominations for individuals. Female names end in /-i/ and male names end in /-a/. Animals are also distinguished by gender.
|ya/iya||Father's Mother/Mother's Mother|
- Bonda at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Bonda language at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bondo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Anderson, Gregory (2008). The Munda Languages. New York: Routledge. pp. 557–631. ISBN 9780415328906.
- N. Gopalakrishnan, Linguistic Survey of India, p. 271
- "Bondo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-05-04.
- Dash, Jagannatha; Pati, Rabindra (2002). Tribal and Indigenous People of India: Problems and Prospects. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corperation. pp. 136–144. ISBN 8176483222.
- Swain, Rajashree (1998). "A Grammar of Bonda Language". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 58/59: 391–396. JSTOR 42930587.
- DeArmond, Richard (1976). "Proto-Gutob-Remo-Gtaq Stressed Monosyllabic Vowels and Initial Consonants". Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications. 13: 213–217. JSTOR 20019157.
- Hook, Peter (1991). "The Compound Verb in Munda: An Areal and Typological Overview". Language Sciences. 13: 181–195. doi:10.1016/0388-0001(91)90013-Q.
- Bhattacharya, Sudhibhushan (1970). "Kinship Terms in the Munda Language". Anthropos. 65: 444–465. JSTOR 40457389.