El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail
|El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail|
Location of trail
|Location||Texas, Louisiana; USA|
|Nearest city||Natchitoches, LA (start) & Laredo, TX|
|Governing body||National Park Service|
|Website||El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail|
The El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail is a National Historic Trail covering the U.S. section of the El Camino Real de Los Tejas, a thoroughfare from the 18th-century Spanish colonial era in Spanish Texas instrumental in the settlement, development and history of Texas. The National Park Service designated the El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail as a unit in the National Historic Trail system in 2004.
Alonso de León, Spanish governor of Coahuila established the corridor for what would become the El Camino Real de los Tejas in multiple expeditions to East Texas between 1686 and 1690 to find and destroy a French fort established by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle on what de León considered to be Spanish lands. The route would be refined in 1691-1692 by Domingo Terán de los Ríos, the first governor of Spanish Texas, in an effort to make better connections to the Spanish missions in East Texas. San Antonio de Bexar, founded in 1718, was the first of many communities built as way stations on the trail.
After Mexico achieved independence from Spain in 1821, immigrants from the American colonies invited to Texas would use the corridor to travel to their settlements. A section of the road called Camino Arriba by the Spanish became known as the Old San Antonio Road. The growth of towns such as Austin, Galveston and Houston not on the original route along with the building of railroads changed the direction of travel and trade and the use of El Camino Real de los Tejas diminished.
The historic trail ran from the capitol and central Viceroyalty of New Spain — present day Mexico City — winding through Saltillo, Monterrey, Laredo (on the modern Texas border), San Antonio, and Nacogdoches, before reaching the Louisiana border at the Sabine River. The river crossing was a ferry, in use since around 1795, as the Chabanan Ferry. James Taylor Gaines purchased the ferry in 1819, and it became known as the Gaines Ferry. Gaines sold the ferry in 1843 and at some point it began to be called Pendleton's Ferry. The ferry remained in service until being replaced by the Gaines-Pendleton Bridge in 1937.
After crossing the river the trail went through the Neutral Strip and Many, Louisiana, before ending at Natchitoches in modern Louisiana. The trail has a 2,500-mile length. For centuries the Native Americans had used the trail routes for trading between the Great Plains and Chihuahuan Desert regions and essentially created the road. The El Camino Real de Los Tejas was first followed and marked by Spanish explorers and missionaries in the 1700s. It was one of several named El Camino Real, or 'royal road,' that connected the Spanish possessions in North America with Mexico City.
Interest in the road revived in the early twentieth century. In 1915 the Texas Legislature appropriated $5,000 to survey and mark the route, and professional surveyor V. N. Zivley was commissioned to make the study. A few years later Daughters of the American Revolution placed granite milestones every five miles along the route to mark it.
In October 2004, President George W. Bush signed into law the El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail. The National Park Service started planning for the El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail in 2006 with a Comprehensive Management Plan.
- Old San Antonio Road – A section of El Camino Real de Los Tejas
- El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro – El Camino Real from Mexico to New Mexico
- El Camino Real (California) – The California Mission Trail
- Spanish missions in Texas
- Presidio San Antonio de Bexar
- El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail
- Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail
- "El Camino Real de los Tejas: Exploring the Royal Road". Texas Heritage Trails Region. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved Jan 1, 2012.
- "El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail" (PDF). Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- GAINES FERRY," Handbook of Texas Online, accessed April 22, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
- "The Kings' Highways: Lost Trails". Texas State Library and Archive Commission. Retrieved Jan 1, 2012.
Old San Antonio Road from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- National Park Service: El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail website
- El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail Association
- History of the trail