In American history, the Fire-Eaters were a group of pro-slavery Southern Democrats in the Antebellum South who urged the separation of Southern states into a new nation, which became the Confederate States of America. The dean of the group was Robert Barnwell Rhett of South Carolina. Some sought to reopen the international slave trade, which had been illegal since 1808.
By radically urging secession in the South, the Fire-Eaters demonstrated the high level of sectionalism existing in the U.S. during the 1850s, and they materially contributed to the outbreak of the Civil War (1861–1865). As early as 1850, there was a Southern minority of pro-slavery extremists who did much to weaken the fragile unity of the nation. Led by such men as Edmund Ruffin, Robert Rhett, Louis T. Wigfall, and William Lowndes Yancey, this group was dubbed "Fire-Eaters" by northerners. At an 1850 convention in Nashville, Tennessee, the Fire-Eaters urged Southern secession, citing irrevocable differences between the North and the South, and they inflamed passions by using propaganda against the North. However, the Compromise of 1850 and other moderate counsel abated the ardor of the Fire-Eaters for a time.
In the latter half of the 1850s, the group reemerged. During the election of 1856, Fire-Eaters used threats of secession in order to persuade Northerners, valuing unity over anti-slavery, to vote for James Buchanan. They used several recent events for propaganda, among them "Bleeding Kansas" and the Sumner-Brooks Affair, to accuse the North of trying to abolish slavery immediately. Using effective propaganda against 1860 presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln, the nominee of the anti-slavery Republican Party, the Fire-Eaters were able to convince many southerners of this. However, Lincoln, despite abolitionist sentiment within the party, had promised not to abolish slavery in the Southern states, but only to forbid it in the territories. They first targeted South Carolina, which passed an article of secession in December 1860. Wigfall, for one, actively encouraged an attack on Fort Sumter to prompt Virginia and other upper Southern States to secede as well. The Fire-Eaters helped to unleash a chain reaction that eventually led to the formation of the Confederate States of America and to the American Civil War. Their influence waned quickly after the start of major fighting.
- William Barksdale
- Joseph E. Brown
- John C. Calhoun, vice president of the United States from 1825 to 1832
- James Dunwoody Brownson De Bow, publisher of De Bow's Review
- Thomas Roderick Dew
- Maxcy Gregg
- Thomas C. Hindman
- Laurence M. Keitt
- William Porcher Miles
- John A. Quitman
- John J. Pettus, Governor of Mississippi, who would lead the state in secession
- Roger Atkinson Pryor
- Robert Rhett
- Edmund Ruffin
- Nathaniel Beverley Tucker
- Louis Wigfall
- William Lowndes Yancey
- David Levy Yulee
- Edward A. O'Neal
- Edmund Pettus
- Stephen D. Ramseur
- Walther, Eric H., The Fire-Eaters (Louisiana State University Press, 1992) ISBN 0-8071-1775-7
- Walther, Eric H. William Lowndes Yancey: The Coming of the Civil War (2006)
- William J. Cooper, Jr. and Thomas E. Terrill (2008). The American South: A History. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 363. ISBN 9780742563995.
- Wilson, Douglas L. Lincoln and Abolitionism The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Retrieved March 30 2016.
- Sansing, David G. (December 2003). "John Jones Pettus: Twentieth and Twenty-third Governor of Mississippi: January 5, 1854 to January 10, 1854; 1859-1863". Mississippi Historical Society. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved 2014-06-07.
- Dubay, Robert W. (1975). John Jones Pettus, Mississippi fire-eater. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 15. ISBN 9781617033537.