Grape juice

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A glass of purple grape juice

Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. In the wine industry, grape juice that contains 7–23 percent of pulp, skins, stems and seeds is often referred to as "must". The sugars in grape juice allow it to be used as a sweetener, and fermented and made into wine, brandy, or vinegar.

In North America, the most common grape juice is purple and made from Concord grapes while white grape juice is commonly made from Niagara grapes, both of which are varieties of native American grapes, a different species from European wine grapes. In California, Sultana (known there as Thompson Seedless) grapes are sometimes diverted from the raisin or table market to produce white juice.[1]

Grape juice can be made from all grape varieties after reaching appropriate maturity. Because of consumers' preferences for characteristics in colour, flavour and aroma, grape juice is primarily produced from American cultivars of Vitis labrusca species.[2]

In Canada, the regulations within the Canadian Food and Drugs Act states that in order for a product to be accepted as a grape juice, the juice product used must have been taken from the fruit of a grape. It must contain ash and phosphoric acid within a regulated amount of which must be dissolved at a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. The manufacturers can add a dry sweetening agent, acidity regulator, certain preservatives, and other various ingredients within the regulations.[3]

History

The method of pasteurizing grape juice to halt the fermentation has been attributed to an American physician and dentist, Thomas Bramwell Welch in 1869. A strong supporter of the temperance movement, he produced a non-alcoholic wine to be used for church services in his hometown of Vineland, New Jersey. His fellow parishioners continued to prefer and use regular wine. His son, Charles E. Welch, who was also a dentist, eventually gave up his practice to promote grape juice. In 1893 he founded Welch's Grape Juice Company at Westfield, New York. The product was given to visitors at international exhibitions. The oldest extant structure associated with the company is Welch Factory Building No. 1, located at Westfield, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.[4]

As the temperance movement grew, so did the popularity of grape juice. In 1913, Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan served grape juice instead of wine during a full-dress diplomatic function, and in 1914, Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, forbade any alcoholic drinks on board of naval ships, actively replacing them with grape juice. During World War I, the company supplied "grapelade", a type of grape jam, to the military and advertised aggressively. Subsequent development of new grape products and sponsorship of radio and television programs made the company very successful.

Ingredients & Composition

Grape juice from concentrate means that excess water from the grapes was removed, making the juice more concentrated. This allows the juice to be compressed and frozen to make packaging and transporting easier. Water is then added to the juice before being sold.[5] The grape juice comes from Concord grapes grown in North America; the entire grape is used (skin and seeds).[6] A small amount of citric acid is naturally found in grapes.[7] It is also additionally added for the tart taste. Ascorbic acid is also naturally found in grapes and is additionally added because it is an antioxidant which helps prevent oxidation, leading to a longer storage life.[8]

General Production

Around mid-September, the grapes are harvested mechanically, using a grape harvesting machine (e.g. Chisholm-Ryder grape harvester), and placed in a bulk box that is transported separately by a tractor or truck. The harvested grapes are then delivered to the processing facility within 4 to 6 hours.[9][10](p93)

A rotating perforated drum removes any stems and leaves that remain attached to the grapes. Once they are detached from the stems, the grapes are subsequently crushed and pass through the holes of the drum. Stems, leaves and other residuals continue along the drum to be removed as waste.[10](p93) The crushed grapes are heated to 60 °C (140 °F) as they move through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A press aid (e.g. sterilized rice hulls, bleached Kraft paper, ground wood pulp) and a pectinase enzyme are two components that are both added to the grapes at this point for effective juice pressing. The mash of the grapes and press aid is pressed at high temperatures for maximal yield of colour and juice.[10](p95) There are various types of pressing equipment that can be used for this process (screw, hydraulic, belt, and pneumatic).[10](p96) Pressed juice and free run juice are held in slurry tanks. The press aid is added to the juice, serving as a filter when the juice undergoes rotary vacuum belt filtration to remove insoluble solids. The juice contains minimal insoluble solids (1% or lower) after filtration.[10](p97-98) The filtered juice is heated to 85-88 °C (185-190 °F) for at least 1 minute and is then cooled to -1.1 - 0 °C (30-32 °F) before it is stored in tanks. The stored juice may undergo necessary re-pasteurization if there is any presence of alcohol, yeasts and moulds.[10](98-99) Additional pectinase is added to speed up and simplify the final filtration process. This filtration process involves diatomaceous earth suspended in the grape juice as it passes through a pre-coated pad or plate. The latter two processes are intended to reduce or prevent sedimentation once the juice is bottled and stored for a long duration of time.[10](p99-100)

There are other process alternatives that can be applied to the processing grape juice, including cold-pressing the juice, and adding sulfur dioxide to the juice.[10](p101-104) The juice can be further processed by removing water to produce a pure concentrate that can be used in a variety of juice products.[11]

Packaging & Storage

Hot filling is traditionally used to package grape juice.[10] In this process, grape juice is heated to a minimum of 77-82 °C using a heat exchanger before the juice is poured into preheated containers made of materials such as glass or newer, heat resistant plastics. Glass presents a more high quality appearance, but can also be quite fragile and bulky compared to plastics. Pasteurization can also be used afterwards to prolong its shelf life by heating the juice to 85 °C for 3 min before cooling it down.[12] At the highest quality of retention, unopened grape juice can be stored for 6–12 months unrefrigerated.[10] After opening, grape juice can be stored for approximately 7–10 days in the refrigerator before spoilage occurs.[13]

Aseptic processing can also be used, which requires the grape juice to be sterilized before packaging.[10] There are different methods of sterilization. Sterile filtration can be used for clarified grape juice with no particulate matter, which uses membranes with a pore size that is small enough to filter out microorganisms (<0.45 µm). Thermal sterilization can also be used by heating the juice to a temperature of 93-100 °C for 15–45 seconds.[10] Additionally, the container itself must also be sterilized with a chemical sterilizing agent like hydrogen peroxide.[14] This process is beneficial for packaging materials such as Tetra Paks that cannot withstand high temperatures. The containers must then be filled in a sterile environment and can be stored for at least 6 months unrefrigerated. Although aseptic packaging is more costly, it maximizes shelf life and results in less heat damage and nutrient losses compared to hot filling.[10]

Variety of Grapes Used for Juice

Despite common assumptions, commercial grape juice does not use the same species of grapes of which would be regularly known for eating. Due to the large selection of grape varieties, considerations that go into the choice of grape species include factors such as the consumer’s preferences, a grape’s disease resistance and a specie’s tolerance to the weather if not already genetically controlled for.[15] The blue-skinned Concord grape has become the most popular grape for juice in North America due to its durability to its environment and its labrusca flavour that comes from its methyl anthranilate properties.[16] This type of grape can also be used for wines and jelly but is found to be most popular in juice for their marketed health benefits of containing anthocyanins and polyphenols.[17] The green grapes that are used for white grape juice lack the phytochemicals that give their purple counterparts their dark colour.

Nutritional Value & Health Benefits

Grape juice has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Drinking grape juice can also control blood pressure, aging, and mitigate prostate cancer. Just like grapes for eating, grape juice contains strong antioxidants known as polyphenols.[18] In fact, the antioxidants in grape juice can act as a protective agent against prostate cancer, which is a leading cause of low quality of life and mortality in men. A human study showed that “8-week dietary supplementation of grape juice (480 mL/day) reduced lymphocyte DNA damage by reducing the formation of reactive oxygen species by as much as 15%”. This suggests a potential anti-carcinogenic role for grape products such as grape juice.[19] Additionally, studies have shown that red and purple grape juices lower the thickness of blood platelets, leading to a decrease in the formation of blood clotting of which can correlate to heart attacks.[20] Furthermore, consuming grape juice reduces blood pressure, especially in individuals with hypertension.[21] Finally, findings suggest that drinking Concord grape juice may improve some cognitive abilities, such as verbal learning, of adults in the early stages of memory decline.[22]

Religious Uses

Catholicism

The Catholic Church does not use grape juice in the sacrament because it believes that bread and wine literally become the body and blood of Jesus Christ, a dogma known as transsubstantiation.[23] Therefore, it is believed that not using wine impedes the transsubstantiation from actually happening.[24] The Code of Canon Law of the Catholic Church (1983), Canon 924 says that the wine used must be natural, made from grapes of the vine, and not corrupt.[25]

Protestantism

Some Protestant denominations use grape juice in their celebration of the Holy Eucharist.

Judaism

Although alcohol is permitted in Judaism, grape juice is sometimes used as an alternative for kiddush on Shabbat and Jewish holidays and it has the same blessing as wine. However, many authorities maintain that grape juice must be capable of turning into wine naturally in order to be used for kiddush. Common practice, however, is to use any kosher grape juice for kiddush.

also

References

  1. ^ "Thompson Seedless Grape Juice". Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
  2. ^ Cosme, Fernanda; Pinto, Teresa; Vilela, Alice; Cosme, Fernanda; Pinto, Teresa; Vilela, Alice (March 2018). "Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View". Beverages. 4 (1): 22. doi:10.3390/beverages4010022.
  3. ^ Branch, Legislative Services (2019-06-03). "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Food and Drug Regulations". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-07-16.
  4. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 13, 2009.
  5. ^ "What does orange juice 'from concentrate' mean?". BBC Science Focus Magazine. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  6. ^ "Welch's 100% Grape Juice Fact Sheet". http://www.welchs.com/sites/default/files/media/documents/welchs_100pgj_factsheet%20%281%29.pdf. [PDF file]. Retrieved 2019-07-30.
  7. ^ "Grape Juice - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  8. ^ "Ascorbic Acid". ChemicalSafetyFacts.org. 2018-03-23. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  9. ^ "Fall". www.grapegrowersofontario.com. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m McLellan, M. R.; Race, E. J. (1999), Ashurst, P. R. (ed.), "Grape juice processing", Production and Packaging of Non-Carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages, Springer US, pp. 88–105, doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-6296-9_3, ISBN 9781475762969
  11. ^ How grape juice is made, retrieved 2019-08-05
  12. ^ "Principles and practices of small - and medium - scale fruit juice processing". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  13. ^ "Our Story | Welch's". www.welchs.com. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  14. ^ "Role of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide in fruit juice preservation: A review". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  15. ^ "Wine and Juice Varieties for Cool Climates". www.grapegrowersofontario.com. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  16. ^ "Grapes for Juice". www.grapegrowersofontario.com. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  17. ^ "The Difference Between White Grape Juice and Purple Grape Juice". LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  18. ^ "Grapes: Health benefits, tips, and risks". Medical News Today. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  19. ^ Zhou, Kequan; Raffoul, Julian J. (2012). "Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants". Journal of Oncology. 2012: 803294. doi:10.1155/2012/803294. ISSN 1687-8450. PMC 3420094. PMID 22919383.
  20. ^ Publishing, Harvard Health. "Ask the doctor: Do grapes and grape juice protect the heart like wine does?". Harvard Health. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  21. ^ Park, Yoo Kyoung; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee (2004). "Concord grape juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in Korean hypertensive men: double-blind, placebo controlled intervention trial". BioFactors (Oxford, England). 22 (1–4): 145–147. doi:10.1002/biof.5520220128. ISSN 0951-6433. PMID 15630270.
  22. ^ Krikorian, Robert; Nash, Tiffany A.; Shidler, Marcelle D.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A. (March 2010). "Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment". The British Journal of Nutrition. 103 (5): 730–734. doi:10.1017/S0007114509992364. ISSN 1475-2662. PMID 20028599.
  23. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1413". Vatican.va. Retrieved 2012-02-01.
  24. ^ "The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist". Newadvent.org. 1909-05-01. Retrieved 2012-02-01.
  25. ^ "Altar wine, Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. 1907-03-01. Retrieved 2012-02-01.
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