List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2019[1]
Countries by nominal GDP in 2019[note 1]
  >$20 trillion
  $10–$20 trillion
  $5–$10 trillion
  $1–$5 trillion
  $750 billion–$1 trillion
  $500–$750 billion
  $250–$500 billion
  $100–$250 billion
  $50–$100 billion
  $25–$50 billion
  $5–$25 billion
  <$5 billion

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency.[3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.[4]

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, does not take into account the differences of quality of goods and services among countries, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP.[5] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.[6]

The United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of approximately $20.513 trillion, notably due to high average incomes, a large population,[7] capital investment, moderate unemployment,[8] high consumer spending,[9] a relatively young population,[10] and technological innovation.[11] Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy, with a GDP of about $32 million, because of its very small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible capital investment, demographic problems, and low average incomes.[12]

Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output.[13][14] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through privatisation and deregulation,[15][16] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978 to second to only the United States in 2016 as economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016.[14][1] India has also experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s.[17] When supranational entities are included, the European Union is the second largest economy in the world. It was the largest from 2004, when ten countries joined the union,[18] to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States.[19]

The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.

Lists

Per the International Monetary Fund (2019 estimates)[1] Per the World Bank (2018)[20] Per the United Nations (2017)[21][22]
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(US$million)
   World[19] 87,265,226
1  United States 21,439,453
 European Union[23][n 1] 18,705,132
2  China[n 2] 14,140,163
3  Japan 5,154,475
4  Germany 3,863,344
5  India 2,935,570
6  United Kingdom 2,743,586
7  France 2,707,074
8  Italy 1,988,636
9  Brazil 1,847,020
10  Canada 1,730,914
11  Russia[n 3] 1,637,892
12  Korea, South 1,629,532
13  Spain 1,397,870
14  Australia 1,376,255
15  Mexico 1,274,175
16  Indonesia 1,111,713
17  Netherlands 902,355
18  Saudi Arabia 779,289
19  Turkey 743,708
20   Switzerland 715,360
 Taiwan 586,104
21  Poland 565,854
22  Thailand 529,177
23  Sweden 528,929
24  Belgium 517,609
25  Iran 458,500
26  Austria 447,718
27  Nigeria 446,543
28  Argentina 445,469
29  United Arab Emirates 405,771
30  Norway 417,627
31  Israel 387,717
 Hong Kong 372,989
32  Ireland 384,940
33  Malaysia 365,303
34  Singapore 362,818
35  South Africa 358,839
36  Philippines 356,814
37  Denmark 347,176
38  Colombia 327,895
39  Bangladesh 317,465
40  Egypt 302,256
41  Chile 294,237
42  Pakistan 284,214
43  Finland 269,654
44  Vietnam 261,637
45  Czech Republic 246,953
46  Romania 243,698
47  Portugal 236,408
48  Peru 228,989
49  Iraq 224,462
50  Greece 214,012
51  New Zealand 204,671
52  Qatar 191,849
53  Algeria 172,781
54  Hungary 170,407
55  Kazakhstan 170,326
56  Ukraine 150,401
57  Kuwait 137,591
58  Morocco 119,040
59  Ecuador 107,914
60  Slovakia 106,552
 Puerto Rico 99,913
61  Kenya 98,607
62  Angola 91,527
63  Ethiopia 91,166
64  Dominican Republic 89,475
65  Sri Lanka 86,566
66  Guatemala 81,318
67  Oman 76,609
68  Venezuela 70,140
69  Luxembourg 69,453
70  Panama 68,536
71  Ghana 67,077
72  Bulgaria 66,250
73  Myanmar 65,994
74  Tanzania 62,224
75  Belarus 62,572
76  Costa Rica 61,021
77  Croatia 60,702
78  Uzbekistan 60,490
79  Syria[n 4] 60,043/Na
80  Uruguay 59,918
81  Lebanon 58,565
 Macau 55,136
82  Slovenia 54,154
83  Lithuania 53,641
84  Serbia 51,523
85  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 48,994
86  Azerbaijan 47,171
87  Turkmenistan 46,674
88  Côte d'Ivoire 44,439
89  Jordan 44,172
90  Bolivia 42,401
91  Paraguay 40,714
92  Tunisia 38,732
93  Cameroon 38,632
94  Bahrain 38,184
95  Latvia 35,045
96  Libya 33,018
97  Estonia 31,038
98  Sudan 30,873
99  Uganda 30,666
100  Yemen 29,855
101    Nepal 29,813
102  El Salvador 26,871
103  Cambodia 26,730
104  Honduras 24,449
105  Cyprus 24,280
106  Zambia 23,946
107  Senegal 23,940
108  Iceland 23,918
109  Papua New Guinea 23,587
110  Trinidad and Tobago 22,607
111  Bosnia and Herzegovina 20,106
112  Laos 19,127
113  Afghanistan 18,734
114  Botswana 18,690
115  Mali 17,647
117  Gabon 16,877
116  Georgia 15,925
118  Jamaica 15,702
119  Albania 15,418
120  Mozambique 15,093
121  Malta 14,859
122  Burkina Faso 14,593
123  Mauritius 14,391
124  Benin 14,374
125  Namibia 14,368
126  Mongolia 13,637
127  Armenia 13,444
128  Guinea 13,368
129  Zimbabwe 12,818
130  North Macedonia 12,672
131  Bahamas, The 12,664
132  Madagascar 12,550
133  Nicaragua 12,528
134  Brunei 12,455
135  Equatorial Guinea 12,142
136  Moldova 11,688
137  Congo, Republic of the 11,576
138  Chad 11,026
139  Rwanda 10,209
140  Niger 9,443
141  Haiti 8,819
142  Kyrgyzstan 8,261
143  Tajikistan 8,152
 Kosovo 7,996
144  Malawi 7,522
145  Maldives 5,786
146  Togo 5,502
147  Mauritania 5,651
148  Montenegro 5,424
149  Fiji 5,708
150  Barbados 5,189
151  Somalia 4,958
152  Eswatini 4,657
153  Sierra Leone 4,229
154  Guyana 4,121
155  Suriname 3,774
156  South Sudan 3,681
157  Burundi 3,573
158  Liberia 3,221
159  Djibouti 3,166
160  Timor-Leste 2,938
 Aruba 2,903
161  Bhutan 2,842
162  Lesotho 2,741
163  Central African Republic 2,321
164  Eritrea 2,110
165  Belize 2,001
166  St. Lucia 1,992
167  Gambia 1,773
168  Antigua and Barbuda 1,688
169  Seychelles 1,644
170  San Marino 1,591
171  Solomon Islands 1,440
172  Grenada 1,238
173  Comoros 1,179
174  St. Kitts and Nevis 1,032
175  Vanuatu 951
176  Samoa 905
177  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 856
178  Dominica 593
179  Tonga 488
180  São Tomé and Príncipe 430
181  Micronesia, Federated States of 381
182  Palau 291
183  Marshall Islands 220
184  Kiribati 184
185  Tuvalu 42
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(US$million)
   World 85,804,391
1  United States 20,494,100
2  China[n 5] 13,608,152
3  Japan 4,970,916
4  Germany 3,996,759
5  United Kingdom 2,825,208
6  France 2,777,535
7  India 2,726,323
8  Italy 2,073,902
9  Brazil 1,868,626
10  Canada 1,712,510
11  Russia[n 3] 1,657,554
12  Korea, South 1,619,424
13  Australia 1,432,195
14  Spain 1,426,189
15  Mexico 1,223,809
16  Indonesia 1,042,173
17  Netherlands 913,658
18  Saudi Arabia 782,483
19  Turkey 766,509
20   Switzerland 705,501
21  Poland 585,783
 Taiwan 574,905 (2017)
22  Sweden 551,032
23  Belgium 531,767
24  Argentina 518,475
25  Thailand 504,993
26  Austria 455,737
27  Iran 454,013 (2017)
28  Norway 434,751
29  United Arab Emirates 414,179
30  Nigeria 397,270
31  Ireland 382,487
32  Israel 369,690
33  South Africa 368,288
34  Singapore 364,157
 Hong Kong 362,993
35  Malaysia 354,348
36  Denmark 352,058
37  Philippines 330,910
38  Colombia 330,228
39  Pakistan 312,570
40  Chile 298,231
41  Bangladesh 274,025
42  Finland 273,961
43  Egypt 250,895
44  Czech Republic 245,226
45  Vietnam 244,948
46  Romania 239,553
47  Portugal 237,979
48  Iraq 225,914
49  Peru 222,238
50  Greece 218,032
51  New Zealand 205,025
52  Qatar 192,009
53  Algeria 180,689
54  Kazakhstan 170,539
55  Hungary 155,703
56  Kuwait 141,678
57  Ukraine 130,832
58  Morocco[n 6] 118,495
59  Ecuador 108,398
60  Slovak Republic 106,472
61  Angola 105,751
62  Cuba 96,851 (2017)
63  Sri Lanka 88,901
64  Kenya 87,908
65  Ethiopia 84,355
66  Dominican Republic 81,299
67  Oman 79,295
68  Guatemala 78,460
69  Myanmar 71,215
70  Luxembourg 69,488
71  Ghana 65,556
72  Bulgaria 65,133
73  Panama 65,055
74  Croatia 60,806
75  Costa Rica 60,126
76  Belarus 59,663
77  Uruguay 59,597
78  Tanzania[n 7] 57,437
79  Lebanon 56,639
 Macau 54,545
80  Slovenia 54,235
81  Lithuania 53,251
82  Serbia 50,508
83  Uzbekistan 50,500
84  Libya 48,320
85  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 47,228
86  Azerbaijan 46,940
87  Cote d'Ivoire 43,007
88  Jordan 42,291
89  Sudan 40,852
90  Paraguay 40,842
91  Turkmenistan 40,761
92  Bolivia 40,288
93  Tunisia 39,861
94  Cameroon 38,502
95  Bahrain 37,746
96  Latvia 34,849
97  Zimbabwe 31,001
98  Estonia 30,285
99    Nepal 28,812
100  Uganda 27,477
101  Zambia 26,720
102  El Salvador 26,057
103  Iceland 25,882
104  Cambodia 24,572
105  Cyprus[n 8] 24,470
106  Senegal 24,130
107  Honduras 23,803
108  Papua New Guinea 23,432
109  Trinidad and Tobago 23,410
110  Bosnia and Herzegovina 19,782
111  Afghanistan 19,363
112  Botswana 18,616
113  Laos 18,131
114  Mali 17,197
115  Gabon 17,017
116  Georgia[n 9] 16,210
117  Jamaica 15,718
118  Albania 15,059
 West Bank and Gaza 14,616
119  Malta 14,542
120  Namibia 14,522
121  Mozambique 14,458
122  Burkina Faso 14,442
123  Mauritius 14,220
124  Brunei 13,567
125  Equatorial Guinea 13,317
126  Nicaragua 13,118
127  Mongolia 13,010
128  North Macedonia 12,672
129  Armenia 12,433
130  Bahamas, The 12,162 (2017)
131  Madagascar 12,100
132  Moldova[n 10] 11,309
133  Chad 11,303
134  Congo, Republic of the 11,264
135  Guinea 10,990
136  Benin 10,359
137  Haiti 9,658
138  Rwanda 9,509
139  Niger 9,240
140  Kyrgyzstan 8,093
 Kosovo 7,900
141  Tajikistan 7,523
142  Malawi 7,065
143  Fiji 5,480
144  Montenegro 5,452
145  Mauritania 5,366
146  Togo 5,300
147  Maldives 5,272
148  Somalia 4,721
149  Eswatini 4,704
150  Barbados 4,674 (2017)
151  Sierra Leone 4,000
152  Guyana 3,610
153  Suriname 3,427
154  Liberia 3,249
155  Andorra 3,237
156  Burundi 3,078
157  Lesotho 2,792
158  Timor-Leste 2,581
159  Bhutan 2,535
160  Central African Republic 2,380
161  Cabo Verde 1,987
162  Djibouti 1,966
163  Belize 1,925
164  Saint Lucia 1,876
165  San Marino 1,633 (2017)
166  Gambia, The 1,624
167  Antigua and Barbuda 1,624
168  Seychelles 1,590
169  Guinea-Bissau 1,458
170  Solomon Islands 1,412
171  Grenada 1,207
172  Comoros 1,203
173  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,049
174  Vanuatu 888
175  Samoa 861
176  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 813
177  Dominica 504
178  Tonga 450
179  Sao Tome and Principe 422
180  Micronesia, Federated States of 345
181  Palau 310
182  Marshall Islands 212
183  Kiribati 188
184  Nauru 115
185  Tuvalu 43
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(US$million)
   World[25] 80,501,413
1  United States 19,485,394
2  China[n 5] 12,234,781
3  Japan 4,872,415
4  Germany 3,693,204
5  United Kingdom 2,631,228
6  France 2,582,492
7  India 2,575,666
8  Brazil 2,055,512
9  Italy 1,943,835
10  Canada 1,647,120
11  Korea, South 1,577,524
12  Russia[n 3] 1,530,750
13  Australia 1,408,675
14  Spain 1,314,314
15  Mexico 1,158,229
16  Indonesia 1,015,539
17  Turkey 851,541
18  Netherlands 830,572
19  Saudi Arabia 683,827
20   Switzerland 678,938
21  Argentina 637,486
 Taiwan 579,865
22  Sweden 535,607
23  Poland 526,211
24  Belgium 494,763
25  Iran 460,976
26  Thailand 455,302
27  Austria 416,835
28  Norway 399,470
29  United Arab Emirates 382,575
30  Nigeria 375,769
31  Israel 353,268
32  South Africa 348,872
 Hong Kong 341,659
33  Ireland 331,430
34  Denmark 329,865
35  Singapore 323,901
36  Malaysia 314,707
37  Philippines 313,595
38  Colombia 309,191
39  Pakistan 302,139
40  Chile 277,080
41  Venezuela 255,092
42  Bangladesh 254,646
43  Finland 252,246
44  Vietnam 223,779
45  Czech Republic 215,824
46  Romania 211,803
47  Peru 211,402
48  Greece 203,085
49  New Zealand 202,044
50  Egypt 195,135
51  Portugal 195,041
52  Iraq 182,023
53  Qatar 167,605
54  Algeria 167,555
55  Kazakhstan 159,406
56  Hungary 139,761
57  Angola 126,505
58  Sudan 120,265
59  Kuwait 119,534
60  Ukraine 112,154
61  Morocco 109,708
62  Ecuador 104,295
 Puerto Rico 104,218
63  Cuba 96,851
64  Slovakia 95,617
65  Sri Lanka 87,356
66  Dominican Republic 75,931
67  Guatemala 75,619
68  Ethiopia 75,605
69  Kenya 74,938
70  Oman 70,783
71  Myanmar 67,101
72  Luxembourg 62,316
73  Panama 61,838
74  Uruguay 59,180
75  Ghana 58,996
76  Bulgaria 58,222
77  Costa Rica 57,564
78  Croatia 55,201
79  Belarus 54,441
80  Lebanon 53,393
81  Tanzania 52,090
 Macau 50,361
82  Uzbekistan 49,677
83  Slovenia 48,455
84  Lithuania 47,544
85  Serbia 41,589
86  Azerbaijan 40,748
87  Jordan 40,708
88  Tunisia 40,068
89  Côte d'Ivoire 38,054
90  Turkmenistan 37,915
91  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 37,642
92  Bolivia 37,508
93  Bahrain 35,325
94  Cameroon 34,924
95  Latvia 30,463
96  Paraguay 29,435
97  Yemen 27,956
98  Uganda 27,698
99  Estonia 25,921
100  Zambia 25,868
101  Libya 25,127
102    Nepal 24,870
103  El Salvador 24,805
104  Iceland 24,476
105  Honduras 22,978
106  Cambodia 22,121
107  Trinidad and Tobago 22,104
108  Cyprus 22,054
109  Papua New Guinea 22,005
110  Afghanistan 21,992
111  Senegal 21,126
112  Bosnia and Herzegovina 18,169
113  Zimbabwe 18,036
114  Botswana 17,406
115  Korea, North 17,364
116  Laos 16,853
117  Mali 15,235
118  Georgia 15,159
 Palestine, State of 14,498
119  Gabon 14,623
120  Mozambique 12,651
121  Equatorial Guinea 12,487
122  Brunei 12,128
123  Congo, Republic of the 11,292
124  Jamaica 14,826
125  Nicaragua 13,814
126  Mauritius 13,366
127  Namibia 13,244
128  Albania 13,039
129  Malta 12,553
130  Burkina Faso 12,324
131  Bahamas, The 11,791
132  Armenia 11,536
133  North Macedonia 11,279
134  Mongolia 11,135
135  Chad 10,716
136  Madagascar 10,674
137  Guinea 10,208
 New Caledonia 9,894
138  Benin 9,236
139  Rwanda 9,136
140  Haiti 8,521
141  Moldova 8,128
142  Niger 8,119
143  Kyrgyzstan 7,564
 Kosovo 7,227
144  Tajikistan 7,145
145  Monaco 6,400
146  Malawi 6,339
147  Liechtenstein 6,295
148  South Sudan 5,693
 French Polynesia 5,623
 Bermuda 5,601
149  Suriname 5,210
150  Mauritania 5,092
151  Timor-Leste 4,970
152  Sierra Leone 4,893
153  Montenegro 4,588
154  Togo 4,576
155  Fiji 4,532
156  Eswatini 4,482
157  Barbados 4,353
158  Eritrea 3,858
 Cayman Islands 3,480
159  Andorra 3,278
 Curaçao 3,159
160  Guyana 3,086
161  Maldives 3,032
162  Burundi 2,869
 Aruba 2,664
163  Bhutan 2,562
 Greenland 2,441
164  Liberia 2,122
165  Lesotho 2,081
166  Central African Republic 1,992
167  Belize 1,902
168  Cape Verde 1,855
169  Djibouti 1,844
170  Saint Lucia 1,718
171  San Marino 1,689
172  Somalia 1,535
173  Seychelles 1,486
 Zanzibar 1,391
174  Antigua and Barbuda 1,248
175  Guinea-Bissau 1,209
176  Solomon Islands 1,103
 Sint Maarten 1,059
 British Virgin Islands 902
177  Grenada 884
178  Saint Kitts and Nevis 852
179  Gambia, The 851
180  Samoa 824
181  Vanuatu 812
 Turks and Caicos Islands 797
182  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 729
183  Comoros 648
184  Dominica 533
185  Tonga 435
186  São Tomé and Príncipe 337
187  Micronesia, Federated States of 308
 Cook Islands 311
 Anguilla 311
188  Palau 234
189  Marshall Islands 209
190  Nauru 182
191  Kiribati 180
 Montserrat 63
192  Tuvalu 38

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Based on IMF data. If no data is available for a country from the IMF, then data from the United Nations is used.
  1. ^ The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[24] As the EU is not a country, China is the second ranked country on these lists.
  2. ^ Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. ^ a b c Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  4. ^ Data for Syria's 2014 GDP is from the September 2011 WEO Database, the latest available from the IMF.
  5. ^ a b Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  6. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
  7. ^ Covers mainland Tanzania only.
  8. ^ Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  9. ^ Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  10. ^ Excludes data for Transnistria.

References

  1. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 15 October 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  3. ^ Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". About.com. IAC/InterActiveCorp. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  4. ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia" (PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  5. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Purchasing Power Parity: Weights Matter". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  6. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  7. ^ Vo, Lam Thuy (30 May 2012). "The World's Richest Countries and Biggest Economies, In 2 Graphics". Planet Money. National Public Radio. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  8. ^ Burgen, Emily; et al. (5 April 2012). "An Elusive Relation Between Unemployment and GDP Growth: Okun's Law". Economic Trends. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  9. ^ Vitez, Osmond. "The Importance of Consumer Spending". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  10. ^ Koesterich, Russ (16 May 2014). "America The Youthful? Yes, On a Relative Basis". BlackRock. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  11. ^ Landefeld, J. Steven (11 February 2008). "The Multi-Factor Productivity Residual" (PDF). Measuring Innovation’s Role in GDP & Productivity Growth. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  12. ^ "Tuvalu". Europa. European Commission. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  13. ^ Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". Fortune. Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  14. ^ a b Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press.
  15. ^ Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). "China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform". Studies on Contemporary China. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  16. ^ Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  17. ^ Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  18. ^ "The economics of enlargement". Europa. European Commission. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  19. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. April 2019.
  20. ^ "GDP (current US$)". World Development Indicators. World Bank. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  21. ^ "GDP and its breakdown at current prices in US Dollars". United Nations Statistics Division. January 2019.
  22. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts". unstats.un.org.
  23. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  24. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.
  25. ^ "All countries and regions/subregions (totals) for all years - sorted by region/subregion". United Nations. United Nations. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
The article is a derivative under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. A link to the original article can be found here and attribution parties here. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use. Gpedia Ⓡ is a registered trademark of the Cyberajah Pty Ltd.