List of lynching victims in the United States

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The body of John Heath, lynched in Tombstone, Arizona, on February 22, 1884, following the Bisbee massacre

Lynching is the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 19th century, following the emancipation of slaves; they declined in the 1920s. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the Southern United States, but women were also lynched. White lynchings of black people also occurred in the Midwestern United States and the Border States, especially during the 20th-century Great Migration of black people out of the Southern United States. The purpose was to enforce white supremacy and intimidate black people through racial terrorism. According to Ida B. Wells and the Tuskegee University, most lynching victims were accused of murder or attempted murder. Rape or attempted rape was the second most common accusation; such accusations were often pretexts for lynching black people who violated Jim Crow etiquette or engaged in economic competition with white people. Sociologist Arthur F. Raper investigated one hundred lynchings during the 1930s and estimated that approximately one-third of the victims were falsely accused.[1][2] On a per capita basis, lynchings were also common in California and the Old West, especially of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans and Asian Americans were also lynched.[3] Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans,[4] German-Americans[5] and Italian-Americans[6][7] were also lynched occasionally.This is a list of victims of lynching in the United States.

19th Century

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Ah Wing, Dr. Chee Long "Gene" Tong, Chang Wan, Leong Quai, Ah Long, Wan Foo, Day Kee, Ah Waa, Ho Hing, Lo Hey, Ah Won, Wing Chee, Wong Chin Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Saladino, Lorenzo; Arena, Salvatore; Giuseppe Venturella 33-36, 27, 48 Italian Hahnville St. Charles Parish Louisiana 1896 Murder Saladino was accused of murdering a wealthy merchant. Arena and Venturella happened to have been in the same prison, accused of a different murder. All rounded up together and lynched to "teach the lawless Italians a salutary lesson." After the lynching, another person confessed to the murder for which Arena and Venturella had been lynched.
DiFatta brothers (Francesco, Carlo, and Giuseppe);
Cerami, Giovanni;
Rosario Fiducia
Italian Tallulah Madison Parish Louisiana 1899 Shooting a doctor Sicilian immigrant grocery store owners, the DiFatta brothers, quarreled with a local doctor. The doctor fired his pistol at brother Carlo and was immediately shot and injured by brother Giuseppe. Sicilian immigrants Cerami and Fiducia were not involved in the dispute and had simply been nearby when the lynching occurred; they were rounded up and lynched alongside the DiFatta brothers because they were Italian.
Heath, John 28 White Bisbee Cochise Arizona Territory 1884 Accessory to robbery Mob unsatisfied with lenient sentence
Hose, Sam about 24 African-American Noonan Coweta Georgia 1899 Killed his white employer in self-defense. Accusations of rape added to incite lynching. Body parts for sale in a store. Widely publicized and privately investigated.
Joe Coe ("A married man with two children") African-American Omaha Douglas Nebraska 1891 Assault on a white girl of 5 The Governor and the Sheriff tried unsuccessfully to quiet the crowd in front of the Courthouse. Pieces of the lynching rope were sold as souvenirs. Despite 16 wounds to his body and three broken vertebrae, Coroner said he died of "fright". Grand jury declined to indict.
Henry Smith 17 African-American Paris Lamar Texas 1893 Kidnapping and murder of white girl; Smith confessed under duress. Tortured, burned with hot irons, doused in oil and set on fire; his remains were sold as souvenirs.
Lovejoy, Elijah 35 White Alton Madison Illinois 1837 Abolitionist newspaper editor and publisher Had moved to Alton to escape violence in St. Louis. Four successive printing presses destroyed. "Not guilty" verdict; jury foreman member of mob.[8]
Miller, Amos 23 African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1888 Assaulting a white woman Taken from the courthouse during his trial and lynched on the balcony railings.[9]
Taylor, Jim African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1891 Shooting a policeman Taken from his jail cell by a mob and lynched on Murfreesboro Road.[10]
Jones, David African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1872 Murdering Henry Murray. Taken out of his prison cell and lynched by a mob on the public square.[11][12]
Grizzard, Ephraim African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1892 Assaulting two white girls in Goodlettsville. Taken out of his prison cell and lynched on a bridge in Downtown Nashville in front of 10,000 onlookers. Later taken back to Goodlettsville.[13]
11 Italian Americans Italian-American New Orleans Orleans Louisiana 1891 Killing of police chief 3 had been acquitted; 3 had a mistrial; 5 never tried. Lynching organized by local leaders, including future mayor Walter C. Flower and future governor John M. Parker. Grand jury brought no charges.
Villarosa, Federico Italian Vicksburg Warren County Mississippi 1886 Assault of a white girl
Heflin, Lee White Fauquier Virginia 1892 Convicted murderer Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.[14]
Shorter, William 17 African-American Winchester N/A (independent city) Virginia 1893 Assault on a white woman [14]
Dye, Joseph White Fauquier Virginia 1892 Convicted murderer Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.[14]
Anderson, Orion African-American Leesburg Loudoun Virginia 1889 Hung from a derrick[14]
Thompson, Benjamin 20 African-American Alexandria N/A (independent city) Virginia 1899 Hung from a lamppost at Cameron and Lee Sts., site of several lynchings.[14]
McCoy, Joseph 20 African-American Alexandria N/A (independent city) Virginia 1897 Assault on a young girl [14]
Fletcher, Magruder African-American Tasley Accomack Virginia 1889 [14]
Adam African-American Tampa Hillsborough Florida 1859 A white man was murdered; "in keeping with local custom, a slave man was selected to be killed in retribution". State Supreme Court overturned conviction. Mob broke into jail where he was awaiting a new trial and hung him. Defended by Ossian Hart.[15]:269
Reed, Joseph African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1875 Killing a police officer Taken out of his jail cell by an unmasked mob and hanged on a suspension bridge.[16]
Baker, Frazier B. 41 African-American Lake City Florence South Carollna 1898 Appointed Postmaster

Grand jury did not indict. Since it was a Federal crime (attack on a postmaster) there were 13 Federal indictments; no one convicted

Moss, Tom Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[17]
McDowell, Calvin Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[17]
Stewart, Will Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[17]
Lundy, Dick adult African-American Edgefield Edgefield South Carolina 1891 Murder of son of sheriff Coroner's jury: "by persons unknown"
Divers, Emmett adult African-American Mexico Audrain Missouri 1893 Murder of a white woman "Horrible fury of the mob...500 horsemen." Hung from bridge until dead, taken down and hung a second time from a telegraph pole at the fairground, "at the request of the murdered woman's husband". Body and cabin burned.[18]
Great Hanging at Gainesville (number > 16) adult men White Gainesville Cooke Texas 1862 Lynching, plus "legal" executions, of Union supporters by Confederate supporters Many lynched before trial was concluded. Prosecution of perpetrators "half-hearted"; only one convicted.[19][20]
Peterson, John adult African-American Denmark Bamberg (at the time, Barnwell County) South Carolina 1893 Attack on a white girl
Woods, Eliza "Colored" Jackson Madison Tennessee 1886 Supposedly poisoning her employer. Taken from the county jail, stripped naked, hung up in the courthouse yard and her body riddled with bullets and left exposed to view.[21]
Harrington, Levi African-American Kansas City Jackson Missouri 1882 Killing a police officer Newspapers reported he was innocent, but no one was held accountable for the lynching.[22][23][24][25]
Mingo Jack 66 African-American Eatontown Monmouth New Jersey 1886 Rape of a white woman All suspects acquitted.[26][27]
Smith, Joseph (founder of Mormonism) and brother Hyrum Smith 38,
44
White Carthage Hancock Illinois 1844 Technically, treason against state of Illinois, but lynching was for religious views, especially plural marriage/polygamy. In jail awaiting trial. Five men were tried and acquitted.
McIntosh, Francis Adult African-American St. Louis N/A (independent city) Missouri 1836 Complicated, but culminating in death of one constable/deputy sheriff and wounding another Burned alive. Lynching had broad local support. Reported on by abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy, who was soon lynched himself.
Campbell, John Native-American Mankato Blue Earth, Nicollet, and Le Sueur Minnesota 1865 Murder Lynched by a mob after an extrajudicial "trial".[28][29]
Taylor, John 17 African-American Mason Ingham Michigan 1866 attempted murder of his employer's wife following a wage dispute John was a former slave, and had been a teenage soldier for the Union. A mob dragged him from a jail, tortured him and hanged him from a tree, and mutilated and decapitated his body; no one was prosecuted. In 2018 a local park was named the "John Taylor Memorial Park" after him.[28][30]
Gilmer, Bill African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1879 Shot attorney Thomas J. Wood Shot. Gilmer was accused of shooting Wood who had whipped Gilmer for using offensive language near his wife.[31][32]
Conorly, Huie 16 African-American Bogalusa Washington Louisiana 1884 Attempted rape [33]
Champion, Tony
Kelly, Michael
African-American,
White (Irish)
Gainesville Alachua Florida 1891 Murder Taken together from jail by mob and hanged.[34]
Ford, Andrew African-American Gainesville Alachua Florida 1891 Beating a man, aiding Harmon Murray Taken from jail by mob and hanged.[34]
Hinson, Henry African-American Micanopy Alachua Florida 1892 Murder Hanged.[34]
Unknown boy African-American Waldo Alachua Florida 1892 Suspicion of burglary and incendiarism Hanged.[34]
Willis, Charles African-American Rochelle Alachua Florida 1894 "Desperado" Shot and burned in bed.[34]
Rawls, William African-American Newnansville Alachua Florida 1895 Murder Hanged and shot.[34]
Daniels, Alfred African-American Gainesville Alachua Florida 1896 Suspicion of arson (barn burning) (no evidence) Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[34]
Randolph, Sydney adult African-American Gaithersburg Montgomery Maryland 1896 Killing a white girl Taken from the jail by a mob.[35]
James, John Henry adult African-American Charlottesville (near) Albemarle Virginia 1898 Rape
Martin, Albert 23 African-American Port Huron St. Clair Michigan 1889 Assault and rape A mob broke into his jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged him from the jail with a noose around his neck, beat and shot him to death, then hanged his corpse from a bridge.[28][36]
Puryear, Richard African-American Stroudsburg Monroe Pennsylvania 1894 Murder Lynched by a mob after escaping from jail.[28][37]
Porter, Nevlin African-American Starkville Oktibbeha Mississippi 1879 Arson [38]
Spencer, Johnson African-American Starkville Oktibbeha Mississippi 1879 Arson [39]
Outlaw, Wyatt African-American Graham Alamance North Carolina 1870 Prominent local figure (no crime alleged) 63 indictments, but the North Carolina Legislature, to end their cases, repealed the law they were charged with violating.[40]
Stephens, John W. 35 White Yancyville Caswell North Carolina 1870 State senator who worked to help freedmen Ku Klux Klan; no one charged.
McChristian, Perry White Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Murder of white peddler [41]
Williams, Felix White Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Murder of white peddler [41]
James, Bartley African-American Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Suspicion of murder of white peddler [41]
Campbell, John African-American Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Suspicion of murder of white peddler [41]

20th Century

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
William Bradford African-American Chunky Newton Mississippi 1911 Accused of attempted murder of two white farmers [42]
Council, Lynn African-American near Raleigh Wake North Carolina 1952 Robbery He survived. Newspapers treat it as a lynching. Council has received apologies from the law enforcement agencies involved.
Harrison, Cellos 31 African-American Marianna Jackson Florida 1943 Murder of a white man. Awaiting new trial after conviction overturned on appeal.
Thompson, Shedrick (also spelled "Shamrock") 39 African-American rural Fauquier Virginia 1932 Assault and rape.
Lang, Ed African-American Rice Navarro Texas 1916 "Attacking a young woman." Taken from a sheriff's posse and hung.[43]
Wright, Charles
Young, Arthur[44]
one other
African-American Perry Taylor Florida 1922 Murder of white teacher Wright was taken from sheriff by a large mob, tortured into confession, and burned at the stake. Arthur Young was later taken from the jail and he and another man were shot and hanged. Several African American community buildings and homes were burned in the Perry race riot.
Scott, Henry African American Bartow Polk Florida 1920, May 8 He asked a white woman to wait until he had prepared another woman's train berth Shot[45]
Moore's Ford lynchings (George W. and Mae Murray Dorsey; Roger and Dorothy Malcom) adults African-American Walton Georgia 1946 Stabbing of a white man (Roger Malcom) Huge investigation. 2003 and 2016 books on this investigation. No one charged.
Hamilton, Eugene African-American Jasper Georgia 1919 Convicted by all-white jury of attempting to shoot a white farmer; case before Georgia Court of Appeals. Mob of 60 stopped car of sheriff who was driving him for protection to nearest large city, Macon. Driven to a bridge in Jasper County and shot to death. Governor was "livid".[46]:233–234
Cox, Obe African-American Oglethorpe County Georgia September 10, 1919 Accused of murdering a white farmer's wife Taken to the scene of the crime, his body riddled with bullets and burned at the stake. Several thousand persons witnessed the scene. Controversial as the local Black communisty "thanked" the mob for just killing Cox and not attacking their community.[47]
Jones, Paul African-American Macon (near) Bibb Georgia 1919, November 3 Attacking a white woman. Mob of 400 found him, refused to turn him over to sheriff's deputies. Soaked in gasoline, set on fire; shot while he burned.[46]:241
Jameson, Jordan African-American Magnolia Columbia Arkansas 1919, November 11 Killing a sheriff. Burned to death in the public square.[46]:241
Watt, W.W. White Newport News N/A Virginia 1900 Assault Shot[48]
Walters, Lemuel African-American Longview Gregg Texas 1919 Making "indecent advances" to a white woman.
Holden, George African-American Monroe (near) Ouachita Louisiana 1919 Mob stopped a train, dragged him off, and shot him.[46]:18
Wilkins, Willie African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Friend of man believed to have killed lawman. [46]:8
Ruffin, John African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Son of man believed to have killed lawman. [46]:7–8
Ruffin, Henry African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Son of man believed to have killed lawman. [46]:7–8
Gause, Anderson African-American Henning Lauderdale Tennessee 1900 Aided escapees [48]
Pete, Dago African-American Tutwiler Tallahatchie Mississippi 1900 Assaulted colored woman Killed by African American mob[48]
Nelson, Laura African-American Okemah Okfuskee Oklahoma 1911 Shooting a sheriff. Gang-raped and lynched together with her son, 14, after trying to protect him during a meat-pilfering investigation.[49]
Fambro, William African-American Griffin Spalding Georgia 1903 Insulted white home [50]
Banks, Isadore African-American Marion Crittenden Arkansas 1954 Being prosperous [51]
Unknown male African-American Marion Crittenden Arkansas 1930s Teaching the black children of Marked Tree, Arkansas to read Burned, sign posted "run niggers run!".[52]
Price, Manny,
Scruggs, Robert
African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1902 Murder,
suspected accomplice
Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[34]
Clark, Jumbo African-American High Springs Alachua Florida 1904 Assault of 14 year old white girl Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[34]
Long, Jack White Newberry Alachua Florida 1908 Murder Hanged.[34]
Jay Lynch White Missouri Barton Missouri May 28, 1919 Murder Hanged.
White, Henry African-American Campville Alachua Florida 1913 Found under white woman's bed Hanged, noose broke, shot.[34]
Newberry Six lynchings (Baskins, Rev. Josh J.,
Dennis, Bert,
Dennis, James,
Dennis, Mary,
McHenry, Andrew, and
Young, Stella)
adults African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1916 Helping a man who had shot and killed a constable James Dennis was shot. The others were hanged. Mary Dennis had two children and was pregnant. Stella Young had four children.[34][53]
Wilson, Abraham African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1923 Cattle stealing Serving 6-month sentence when taken from jail and hanged.[34][54]
Buddington, George 55 African-American Waldo Alachua Florida 1926 Attempted to collect debt from a white woman at gunpoint Mob broke lock on jail, took Buddington out of town and shot him to death.[34][55]
Pyszko, Marian 54 Polish Jew Detroit Wayne Michigan 1975 He was white and was in the wrong place at the wrong time. Killed by African American youths who wanted a white victim.
Green, Ernest, and Charlie Lang 14, 15 African-American Shubuta ("hanging bridge") Clarke Mississippi 1942 Attempted rape. [56]:101
Johnson, Ed Adult African-American Chattanooga Hamilton Tennessee 1906 Rape of white woman Sheriff and two others sentenced to 6 months in jail, three others with 3 months, for abetting the lynching. Only criminal case ever with direct involvement of the U.S. Supreme Court; see United States v. Shipp
Clark, Andrew and Major; Alma and Maggie House 16, 20, 16, 20 African-American Shubuta ("hanging bridge") Clarke Mississippi 1918 Alleged murder of dentist Dentist had affairs with both sisters, who were pregnant, likely with his child; the brothers had romantic interest in the girls. After the lynching the babies were seen squirming in their mothers bellies.[57]
Clark, James African-American Eau Gallie Brevard Florida 1926 Rape of a white girl No attempt to verify crime nor identify murderers:Last known lynching in Brevard County[58][59]
Williams, Elbert African-American Brownsville Haywood Tennessee 1940 Registering to vote and starting an NAACP chapter. Last reported lynching in Tennessee.[60]
Brown, Will 41 African-American Omaha Douglas Nebraska 1919 Rape Part of the Omaha race riot of 1919
Williams, Eugene African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1919 Racial unrest A white officer refused to arrest the murderer, and instead arrested a black man who complained about it.[61]
Robinson, Robert African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1919 He was black, and they wanted to kill a black Robinson was an Army Reserve veteran.[62]
Ashley, Bob African-American Dublin Laurens Georgia 1919 Hoped to shoot someone else A group of men thought another man might be inside Ashley's house, so they shot into the house, mortally wounding Ashley.[63]
Wright, Cleo African-American Sikeston Scott Missouri 1942 Home invasion, attempted murder, attempted rape, resisting arrest Around 100 black people left Sikeston and never returned.[64]
Walters, Lemuel African-American Longview Gregg Texas 1919 Consensual sex with white woman The report of the affair and the subsequent coverup led to the Longview riots.[65]
Richards, Benny African-American Warrenton Warren Georgia 1919 Accused of murdering his ex-wife and shooting 5 others 300 men lynched Richards, a farmer.[66][67]
Clay, Lloyd African-American Vicksburg Warren Mississippi 1919 False rape accusation 1000 men broke through three steel doors to abduct Clay from jail before hanging, shooting, and burning him.[68]
Prince, Henry African-American Hawkinsville Pulaski Georgia 1919 [69]
Waters, Jim African-American Johnson Georgia 1919 Rape accusation Investigation closed in one hour with no witnesses interviewed.[69]
Livingston, Frank African-American El Dorado Union Arkansas 1919 False murder accusation One of many returning WW I veterans lynched in 1919.[70]
Miller, William African-American Brighton Jefferson Alabama 1908 Labor activist Jefferson County had the highest number of lynchings in Alabama (29).[71]
Washington, Berry 72 African-American Milan Dodge and Telfair Georgia 1919 Defended black girls from white home invaders. Many black homes burned to discourage citizens from coming forward[72]
Chaney, James 21 African-American Philadelphia Neshoba Mississippi 1964 Civil rights worker A federal jury in 1967 convicted the sheriff and six others of conspiracy to violate civil rights; they received minor punishment. A state jury in 2005 found the Ku Klux Klan organizer, Edgar Ray Killen, guilty of three counts of manslaughter; he died in prison. National outrage contributed to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Jordan, James adult African-American Waverly Sussex Virginia 1925 Married woman "attacked" in her home. The case and two others helped lead to the Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, the first state law against lynching.[73][74]
Armwood, George 23 African-American Princess Anne Somerset Maryland 1933 Attempted assault and rape Grand jury declined to indict any of the lynchers identified by State Police. Last lynching in Maryland.
Taylor, George African-American Rolesville Wake North Carolina 1918 Rape of a white woman No charges were filed.[75] There is a Web site on this lynching.[76]
Carter, James African-American Amherst Amherst Virginia 1902 Unknown [77]
Estes, Siles African-American Hodgenville LaRue Kentucky 1901 "Forcing...a 15 year old boy...to commit a crime." [78]
Steers, Jennie adult African-American rural area near Shreveport Caddo Louisiana 1903 Poisoning daughter of a planter [79]:70
Morris, Frank adult African-American Ferriday Concordia Louisiana 1964 "Flirting" with white females [80]:152
Byrd Jr., James 49 African-American Jasper Jasper Texas 1998 None (white supremacists) Dragged to death behind a car, until his head hit a culvert. Perpetrators convicted; two executed, one to life imprisonment.
Young, Albert (or Arthur) 21 African-American Perry Taylor Florida 1922 Murder of a white schoolteacher Tortured, then burned alive
Scott, James T. (Janitor at University of Missouri) African-American Columbia Boone Missouri 1923 Raping the white daughter of a professor. Before he could stand trial, a mob broke him out of jail and hanged him. The daughter would later identify a different man as her rapist. Jury found perpetrator innocent in 11 minutes. Memorial plaque erected 2016.[81][82]
White, George Adult African-American Wilmington New Castle Delaware 1903 Assaulting teenage girl and leaving her to die Taken from county workhouse and burned alive. No one was prosecuted.
Walker, Zachariah 20-24 African-American Coatesville Chester Pennsylvania 1911 Killing of a police officer, possibly in self-defense Taken from hospital room and burned alive. Fifteen men and teenage boys were indicted, but all were acquitted at trials.[83]
Clayton, Elias, Elmer Jackson, and Isaac McGhie 20-23 African-American Duluth St. Louis Minnesota 1920 Rape of a teenage girl Taken from jail by mob, given mock trials, beaten and hanged from light-post. No one was prosecuted.
Holmes, John, and Thomas Thurmond 29
27
White San Jose Santa Clara California 1933 Kidnapping and murder of department store heir Brooke Hart An estimated 10,000 people witnessed the lynching. California Governor James Rolph called the act "a fine lesson for the whole nation."[84]
Higginbotham, Elwood 28 African-American Oxford Lafayette Mississippi 1935 Killed in self-defense a white man that attacked him after he complained about the white man's cattle running over his field. Killed when jury did not bring back guilty verdict promptly. Widow and extended family immediately left Mississippi.[85]
Jennings, Chilton 28 African-American Gilmer Upshur County Texas July 24, 1919 Assaulted a white women, Mrs. Virgie Haggard He was arrested and a mob of about 1,000 white people stormed the jail and broke down the door with sledgehammers. A noose was placed around his neck and he was dragged by horse to the town square where he was hanged.[86] Four people were later arrested for the lynching, murder indictments were served for Willie Howell, Charlie Lansdale, Fritz Boyd, and Francis Flanagan.[87]
Thomas, Wade African-American Jonesboro Craighead Arkansas 1920 Killing a policeman Taken from jail by a mob, hung, then riddled with bullets.[88]
Patton, Nelse African-American Oxford Lafayette Mississippi 1908 Killing a white woman Prominent attorney and former U.S. Senator William V. Sullivan, in his own words, "led the mob...and I'm proud of it".[89][90][91]
Smith, Samuel 15 African-American Nolensville Williamson Tennessee 1924 Stealing spark plugs in a garage. Taken out of his hospital room in Nashville and lynched by a mob of masked men where he was first caught.[92]
Albano, Angelo and Castenge Ficarotta Italian Tampa Hillsborough County Florida 1910 Complicity in a shooting
Lewis, Sanford African-American Fort Smith Sebastian Arkansas 1912 Shooting a constable Five policemen fined $100 each for "nonfeasance of office". Entire police force fired. Mayor voted out. Man charged with lynching acquitted.[93]
Phifer, Miles (or Relius) African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Assault of a white woman Was wearing military uniform[94]
Temple, Will African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Killing a police officer [94]
Miles Phifer, Robert Crosky and John Temple African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama September 29, 1919 Assault of a white woman [94]
Williams, Matthew 23 African-American Salisbury Wicomico Maryland 1931 Killing his employer Taken forcibly from hospital. No indictment despite numerous witnesses.[95]:9–10
Walker, David, his wife and four children African-American Hickman Fulton Kentucky 1908 Using inappropriate language with a white woman [96]
Grant, George African-American Darien McIntosh Georgia 1930 Sheriff: "I don't know who killed the nigger and I don't give a damn."[95]:10
Gunn, Raymond African-American Maryville Nodaway Missouri 1931 Burned to death. National Guard stood by and watched.[95]:10
Lowry, Henry ("a negro sharecropper") African-American Nodena Mississippi Arkansas 1921 Asked for his wages Burned to death; crowd of 500[95]:3
Hartfield, John African-American Ellisville Jones Mississippi 1919 Assaulting a young white woman "The biggest newspaper in the state, Jackson Daily News, carried headlines announcing the exact time and place of the coming orgy.[97] Ten thousand people answered the paper's invitation and they were addressed by the District Attorney, T. W. Wilson, while the lynching was going on."[95]:9
Richardson, Bunk African-American Gadsden Etowah Alabama 1906 Sentenced to death without being charged with any crime; Governor commuted it to life imprisonment. Mob seized him from the jail.
Wise, Mrs. African-American Frankfort (Frankford?) Virginia (West Virginia?) 1931 Objected to her daughter being taken out for "rides" with white Klansmen. [95]:8
Tillis, Dave African-American Crockett Houston Texas 1932 "Demanded an accounting from his landlord. Charged with 'entering the bedroom of a white woman'". [95]:4–5
Hughes, George African-American Sherman Grayson Texas 1930 Pled guilty to criminal assault. Courthouse stormed (during trial), burned down with Hughes locked in vault, fire hoses cut. Body then dragged behind car and hung, and fire lit under it. Followed by riot and destruction of black businesses. Two persons received two-year sentences for violence.[98]
Bromley, H. Heathsville Northumberland Virginia 1955 [14]
Thompson, Allie African-American Culpeper Culpeper Virginia 1918 Assault [14]
Craven, Charles African-American Leesburg Loudoun Virginia 1902 Assault [14]
Parker, John African-American Conway Faulkner Arkansas 1931 Stealing some peaches [95]:4
Abram Smith[99] 19 African-American Marion Grant Indiana 1930 Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Till, Emmett 14 African-American Money LeFlore Mississippi 1955 Flirting with white woman Beaten and mutilated before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Perpetrators acquitted by all-white jury, then openly admitted they did it. Historical markers shot and defaced 2006-2018.[100]
Anthony Crawford[101] 51 African-American Abbeville Abbeville South Carolina 1916 Offensive language Coroner's jury: "persons unknown"
Charles Wright[99][verification needed] 21 African-American Rosewood Levy Florida 1930 Homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Claude Neal African-American Greenwood Jackson Florida 1934 Rape and murder of 19 year old white female Lynchers said he "didn't deserve a trial". Castrated, forced to consume his genitals, stabbed, burned with hot irons, toes and fingers removed, hung, body tied behind automobile. Followed by Marianna riots. Important case in helping to bring lynching to an end.
Dick Rowland (attempted lynching) 19 African-American Tulsa Tulsa Oklahoma 1921 Sexual assault on white girl Conflict between would-be lynchers and defenders led to the Tulsa Race Riot.
Ell Persons about 50 African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1917 Raping and killing a white girl No charges filed.
Fred Rochelle 16 African-American Bartow Polk Florida 1901 Murder and rape of a white woman Doused with kerosene and burned. Special train from Lakeland to see the "barbecue".
McIlherron, Jim [102] African-American Estill Springs Franklin Tennessee 1918 Killing two white people Tortured, then burned alive. Spectators came from as far as 50 miles away. Postcards sold. "No information sufficient to indict."
Jesse Washington[103] 17 African-American Waco McLennan Texas 1916 Murder; Washington confessed and a jury found him guilty. Dragged behind car, castrated, fingers cut off, ear cut off, burned alive. Professionally photographed; pictures sold as postcards. Lynching of "political value" to Sheriff and to the Judge who presided over his trial. "On the way to the scene of the burning, people on every hand took a hand in showing their feelings in the matter by striking the Negro with anything obtainable, some struck him with shovels, bricks, clubs and others stabbed him and cut him until when he was strung up his body was a solid color of red."[103]:5
Carter, John[104] African-American Little Rock Pulaski Arkansas 1927 Attacking a white woman and her mother No charges filed; "mob" responsible.
July Perry[105] 52 African-American Ocoee Orange Florida 1920 Sign on body: "This is what we do to niggers that vote." Prosperous black farmer. See Ocoee massacre.
Leo Frank 31 Jewish Marietta Cobb Georgia 1915 Killing a 13-year-old girl No charges filed; posthumously pardoned.
Mary Turner[106] 18 African-American Bridge joining Brooks County and Lowndes County, Georgia Georgia 1918 Publicly opposed and threatened legal action against white people who had murdered her husband, unfairly accused (according to her) of killing an abusive landowner. "Hung her upside down from a tree, doused her in gasoline and motor oil and set her on fire. Turner was still alive when a member of the mob split her abdomen open with a knife and her unborn child fell on the ground. The baby was stomped and crushed as it fell to the ground. Turner's body was riddled with hundreds of bullets."
Hayes Turner 25 African-American Morven Brooks Georgia 1918 Accused of helping kill an abusive landowner. Wife Mary killed next day for defending him.
Reuben Stacey (also found as Rubin Stacy) 37 African-American Fort Lauderdale Broward Florida 1935 Assault with a knife Law enforcement officer; grand jury refused to indict.
Carter, Sam African-American Rosewood Levy Florida 1923 Assault, rape, and robbery of a white woman See Rosewood massacre. Tortured. Shot before being hung. See Rosewood massacre.
Pitts, Slab African-American Toyah Reeves Texas 1906 Living with a white woman Dragged to death before being hung.
Shipp, Thomas[99][107][108] 18 African-American Marion Grant Indiana 1930 Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Willie Earle 24 African-American Greenville Greenville South Carolina 1947 Killing of taxi driver 31 suspects charged; all acquitted.
Willie James Howard[109] 15 African-American Live Oak Suwannee Florida 1944 Sending Christmas card with "a note expressing his affection" to a white girl. Forced to jump to his death in the Suwanee River. Grand jury refused to indict.
Parker, Mack Charles 22 or 23 African-American Bridge over Pearl River between Mississippi and Louisiana Pearl River Mississippi 1959 Rape and kidnapping of a white woman; charges possibly fabricated. No one indicted.
Donald, Michael 19 African-American Mobile Mobile Alabama 1981 None (Klan looked to kill a black man because killer of white policeman got mistrial). Three Klansmen (Henry Hays, James Knowles, and Benjamin Cox) were convicted of Donald's murder. Henry Hays was sentenced to death and executed in the electric chair in 1997. James Knowles and Benjamin Cox were sentenced to life in prison. A civil suit against the United Klans of America caused their bankruptcy.
Winfred Rembert African-American Cuthbert Randolph Georgia Early 1960s Fighting with deputy while in jail for stealing car to get away from two men shooting at him. Survived. As of 2019, Rembert is a successful leatherwork artist. He has had at least two documentary films made about his story.[110][111][112][113]

21st Century

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
McClelland, Brandon 24 African-American Paris Lamar Texas 2008 None (white supremacists) Dragged to death behind car. Prosecutor dropped charges, citing a "lack of evidence".

See also

References

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