List of lynching victims in the United States
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 19th century, following the emancipation of slaves; they declined in the 1920s. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the Southern United States, but women were also lynched. White lynchings of black people also occurred in the Midwestern United States and the Border States, especially during the 20th-century Great Migration of black people out of the Southern United States. The purpose was to enforce white supremacy and intimidate black people through racial terrorism. According to Ida B. Wells and the Tuskegee University, most lynching victims were accused of murder or attempted murder. Rape or attempted rape was the second most common accusation; such accusations were often pretexts for lynching black people who violated Jim Crow etiquette or engaged in economic competition with white people. Sociologist Arthur F. Raper investigated one hundred lynchings during the 1930s and estimated that approximately one-third of the victims were falsely accused. On a per capita basis, lynchings were also common in California and the Old West, especially of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans and Asian Americans were also lynched. Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans, German-Americans and Italian-Americans were also lynched occasionally. This is a list of victims of lynching in the United States.
|Name||Age||Ethnicity||City||County or Parish||State||Year||Accusation||Comment|
|Ah Wing, Dr. Chee Long "Gene" Tong, Chang Wan, Leong Quai, Ah Long, Wan Foo, Day Kee, Ah Waa, Ho Hing, Lo Hey, Ah Won, Wing Chee, Wong Chin||Chinese||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||California||1871||None||Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.|
|Saladino, Lorenzo; Arena, Salvatore; Giuseppe Venturella||33-36, 27, 48||Italian||Hahnville||St. Charles Parish||Louisiana||1896||Murder||Saladino was accused of murdering a wealthy merchant. Arena and Venturella happened to have been in the same prison, accused of a different murder. All rounded up together and lynched to "teach the lawless Italians a salutary lesson." After the lynching, another person confessed to the murder for which Arena and Venturella had been lynched.|
|DiFatta brothers (Francesco, Carlo, and Giuseppe);
|Italian||Tallulah||Madison Parish||Louisiana||1899||Shooting a doctor||Sicilian immigrant grocery store owners, the DiFatta brothers, quarreled with a local doctor. The doctor fired his pistol at brother Carlo and was immediately shot and injured by brother Giuseppe. Sicilian immigrants Cerami and Fiducia were not involved in the dispute and had simply been nearby when the lynching occurred; they were rounded up and lynched alongside the DiFatta brothers because they were Italian.|
|Heath, John||28||White||Bisbee||Cochise||Arizona Territory||1884||Accessory to robbery||Mob unsatisfied with lenient sentence|
|Hose, Sam||about 24||African-American||Noonan||Coweta||Georgia||1899||Killed his white employer in self-defense. Accusations of rape added to incite lynching.||Body parts for sale in a store. Widely publicized and privately investigated.|
|Joe Coe ("A married man with two children")||African-American||Omaha||Douglas||Nebraska||1891||Assault on a white girl of 5||The Governor and the Sheriff tried unsuccessfully to quiet the crowd in front of the Courthouse. Pieces of the lynching rope were sold as souvenirs. Despite 16 wounds to his body and three broken vertebrae, Coroner said he died of "fright". Grand jury declined to indict.|
|Henry Smith||17||African-American||Paris||Lamar||Texas||1893||Kidnapping and murder of white girl; Smith confessed under duress.||Tortured, burned with hot irons, doused in oil and set on fire; his remains were sold as souvenirs.|
|Lovejoy, Elijah||35||White||Alton||Madison||Illinois||1837||Abolitionist newspaper editor and publisher||Had moved to Alton to escape violence in St. Louis. Four successive printing presses destroyed. "Not guilty" verdict; jury foreman member of mob.|
|Miller, Amos||23||African-American||Franklin||Williamson||Tennessee||1888||Assaulting a white woman||Taken from the courthouse during his trial and lynched on the balcony railings.|
|Taylor, Jim||African-American||Franklin||Williamson||Tennessee||1891||Shooting a policeman||Taken from his jail cell by a mob and lynched on Murfreesboro Road.|
|Jones, David||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1872||Murdering Henry Murray.||Taken out of his prison cell and lynched by a mob on the public square.|
|Grizzard, Ephraim||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1892||Assaulting two white girls in Goodlettsville.||Taken out of his prison cell and lynched on a bridge in Downtown Nashville in front of 10,000 onlookers. Later taken back to Goodlettsville.|
|11 Italian Americans||Italian-American||New Orleans||Orleans||Louisiana||1891||Killing of police chief||3 had been acquitted; 3 had a mistrial; 5 never tried. Lynching organized by local leaders, including future mayor Walter C. Flower and future governor John M. Parker. Grand jury brought no charges.|
|Villarosa, Federico||Italian||Vicksburg||Warren County||Mississippi||1886||Assault of a white girl|
|Heflin, Lee||White||Fauquier||Virginia||1892||Convicted murderer||Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.|
|Shorter, William||17||African-American||Winchester||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1893||Assault on a white woman|||
|Dye, Joseph||White||Fauquier||Virginia||1892||Convicted murderer||Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.|
|Anderson, Orion||African-American||Leesburg||Loudoun||Virginia||1889||Hung from a derrick|
|Thompson, Benjamin||20||African-American||Alexandria||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1899||Hung from a lamppost at Cameron and Lee Sts., site of several lynchings.|
|McCoy, Joseph||20||African-American||Alexandria||N/A (independent city)||Virginia||1897||Assault on a young girl|||
|Adam||African-American||Tampa||Hillsborough||Florida||1859||A white man was murdered; "in keeping with local custom, a slave man was selected to be killed in retribution". State Supreme Court overturned conviction.||Mob broke into jail where he was awaiting a new trial and hung him. Defended by Ossian Hart.:269|
|Reed, Joseph||African-American||Nashville||Davidson||Tennessee||1875||Killing a police officer||Taken out of his jail cell by an unmasked mob and hanged on a suspension bridge.|
|Baker, Frazier B.||41||African-American||Lake City||Florence||South Carollna||1898||Appointed Postmaster||
Grand jury did not indict. Since it was a Federal crime (attack on a postmaster) there were 13 Federal indictments; no one convicted
|Moss, Tom||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|McDowell, Calvin||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|Stewart, Will||Adult||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1892||Complaint from competing white grocery store owner.||So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.|
|Lundy, Dick||Adult||African-American||Edgefield||Edgefield||South Carolina||1891||Murder of son of sheriff||Coroner's jury: "by persons unknown"|
|Divers, Emmett||Adult||African-American||Mexico||Audrain||Missouri||1893||Murder of a white woman||"Horrible fury of the mob...500 horsemen." Hung from bridge until dead, taken down and hung a second time from a telegraph pole at the fairground, "at the request of the murdered woman's husband". Body and cabin burned.|
|Great Hanging at Gainesville (number > 16)||Adult men||White||Gainesville||Cooke||Texas||1862||Lynching, plus "legal" executions, of Union supporters by Confederate supporters||Many lynched before trial was concluded. Prosecution of perpetrators "half-hearted"; only one convicted.|
|Peterson, John||Adult||African-American||Denmark||Bamberg (at the time, Barnwell County)||South Carolina||1893||Attack on a white girl|
|Woods, Eliza||"Colored"||Jackson||Madison||Tennessee||1886||Supposedly poisoning her employer.||Taken from the county jail, stripped naked, hung up in the courthouse yard and her body riddled with bullets and left exposed to view.|
|Harrington, Levi||African-American||Kansas City||Jackson||Missouri||1882||Killing a police officer||Newspapers reported he was innocent, but no one was held accountable for the lynching.|
|Mingo Jack||66||African-American||Eatontown||Monmouth||New Jersey||1886||Rape of a white woman||All suspects acquitted.|
|Smith, Joseph (founder of Mormonism) and brother Hyrum Smith||38,
|White||Carthage||Hancock||Illinois||1844||Technically, treason against state of Illinois, but lynching was for religious views, especially plural marriage/polygamy.||In jail awaiting trial. Five men were tried and acquitted.|
|McIntosh, Francis||26||African-American||St. Louis||N/A (independent city)||Missouri||1836||Complicated, but culminating in death of one constable/deputy sheriff and wounding another||Burned alive. Lynching had broad local support. Reported on by abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy, who was soon lynched himself.|
|Campbell, John||Native-American||Mankato||Blue Earth, Nicollet, and Le Sueur||Minnesota||1865||Murder||Lynched by a mob after an extrajudicial "trial".|
|Taylor, John||17||African-American||Mason||Ingham||Michigan||1866||attempted murder of his employer's wife following a wage dispute||John was a former slave, and had been a teenage soldier for the Union. A mob dragged him from a jail, tortured him and hanged him from a tree, and mutilated and decapitated his body; no one was prosecuted. In 2018 a local park was named the "John Taylor Memorial Park" after him.|
|Gilmer, Bill||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1879||Shot attorney Thomas J. Wood||Shot. Gilmer was accused of shooting Wood who had whipped Gilmer for using offensive language near his wife.|
|Conorly, Huie||16||African-American||Bogalusa||Washington||Louisiana||1884||Attempted rape|||
|Gainesville||Alachua||Florida||1891||Murder||Taken together from jail by mob and hanged.|
|Ford, Andrew||African-American||Gainesville||Alachua||Florida||1891||Beating a man, aiding Harmon Murray||Taken from jail by mob and hanged.|
|Unknown||boy||African-American||Waldo||Alachua||Florida||1892||Suspicion of burglary and incendiarism||Hanged.|
|Willis, Charles||African-American||Rochelle||Alachua||Florida||1894||"Desperado"||Shot and burned in bed.|
|Rawls, William||African-American||Newnansville||Alachua||Florida||1895||Murder||Hanged and shot.|
|Daniels, Alfred||African-American||Gainesville||Alachua||Florida||1896||Suspicion of arson (barn burning) (no evidence)||Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.|
|Randolph, Sydney||Adult||African-American||Gaithersburg||Montgomery||Maryland||1896||Killing a white girl||Taken from the jail by a mob.|
|James, John Henry||Adult||African-American||Charlottesville (near)||Albemarle||Virginia||1898||Rape|
|Martin, Albert||23||African-American||Port Huron||St. Clair||Michigan||1889||Assault and rape||A mob broke into his jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged him from the jail with a noose around his neck, beat and shot him to death, then hanged his corpse from a bridge.|
|Puryear, Richard||African-American||Stroudsburg||Monroe||Pennsylvania||1894||Murder||Lynched by a mob after escaping from jail.|
|Outlaw, Wyatt||49-50||African-American||Graham||Alamance||North Carolina||1870||Prominent local figure (no crime alleged)||63 indictments, but the North Carolina Legislature, to end their cases, repealed the law they were charged with violating.|
|Stephens, John W.||35||White||Yancyville||Caswell||North Carolina||1870||State senator who worked to help freedmen||Ku Klux Klan; no one charged.|
|McChristian, Perry||White||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Murder of white peddler|||
|Williams, Felix||White||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Murder of white peddler|||
|James, Bartley||African-American||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Suspicion of murder of white peddler|||
|Campbell, John||African-American||Grenada||Grenada||Mississippi||1885||Suspicion of murder of white peddler|||
|Name||Age||Ethnicity||City||County or Parish||State||Year||Accusation||Comment|
|Stevenson, Cordella||African-American||Columbus||Lowndes||Mississippi||1915||Her son was accused of burning a white man's barn, he was unavailable, so they raped and murdered her||Her husband Arch was never seen alive after December 15|
|William Bradford||African-American||Chunky||Newton||Mississippi||1911||Accused of attempted murder of two white farmers|||
|Council, Lynn||about 19||African-American||near Raleigh||Wake||North Carolina||1952||Robbery||He survived. Newspapers treat it as a lynching. Council has received apologies from the law enforcement agencies involved.|
|Harrison, Cellos||31||African-American||Marianna||Jackson||Florida||1943||Murder of a white man.||Awaiting new trial after conviction overturned on appeal.|
|Thompson, Shedrick (also spelled "Shamrock")||39||African-American||rural||Fauquier||Virginia||1932||Assault and rape.|
|Lang, Ed||African-American||Rice||Navarro||Texas||1916||"Attacking a young woman."||Taken from a sheriff's posse and hung.|
|African-American||Perry||Taylor||Florida||1922||Murder of white teacher||Wright was taken from sheriff by a large mob, tortured into confession, and burned at the stake. Arthur Young was later taken from the jail and he and another man were shot and hanged. Several African American community buildings and homes were burned in the Perry race riot.|
|Scott, Henry||African American||Bartow||Polk||Florida||1920, May 8||He asked a white woman to wait until he had prepared another woman's train berth||Shot|
|Moore's Ford lynchings (George W. and Mae Murray Dorsey; Roger and Dorothy Malcom)||Adults||African-American||Walton||Georgia||1946||Stabbing of a white man (Roger Malcom)||Huge investigation. 2003 and 2016 books on this investigation. No one charged.|
|Hamilton, Eugene||African-American||Jasper||Georgia||1919||Convicted by all-white jury of attempting to shoot a white farmer; case before Georgia Court of Appeals.||Mob of 60 stopped car of sheriff who was driving him for protection to nearest large city, Macon. Driven to a bridge in Jasper County and shot to death. Governor was "livid".:233–234|
|Cox, Obe||African-American||Oglethorpe County||Georgia||September 10, 1919||Accused of murdering a white farmer's wife||Taken to the scene of the crime, his body riddled with bullets and burned at the stake. Several thousand persons witnessed the scene. Controversial as the local Black communisty "thanked" the mob for just killing Cox and not attacking their community.|
|Jones, Paul||African-American||Macon (near)||Bibb||Georgia||1919, November 3||Attacking a white woman.||Mob of 400 found him, refused to turn him over to sheriff's deputies. Soaked in gasoline, set on fire; shot while he burned.:241|
|Jameson, Jordan||African-American||Magnolia||Columbia||Arkansas||1919, November 11||Killing a sheriff.||Burned to death in the public square.:241|
|Watt, W.W.||White||Newport News||N/A||Virginia||1900||Assault||Shot|
|Walters, Lemuel||African-American||Longview||Gregg||Texas||1919||Making "indecent advances" to a white woman.|
|Holden, George||African-American||Monroe (near)||Ouachita||Louisiana||1919||Mob stopped a train, dragged him off, and shot him.:18|
|Wilkins, Willie||African-American||Jenkins||Georgia||1919||Friend of man believed to have killed lawman.||:8|
|Ruffin, John||African-American||Jenkins||Georgia||1919||Son of man believed to have killed lawman.||:7–8|
|Ruffin, Henry||African-American||Jenkins||Georgia||1919||Son of man believed to have killed lawman.||:7–8|
|Gause, Anderson||African-American||Henning||Lauderdale||Tennessee||1900||Aided escapees|||
|Pete, Dago||African-American||Tutwiler||Tallahatchie||Mississippi||1900||Assaulted colored woman||Killed by African American mob|
|Nelson, Laura||African-American||Okemah||Okfuskee||Oklahoma||1911||Shooting a sheriff.||Gang-raped and lynched together with her son, 14, after trying to protect him during a meat-pilfering investigation.|
|Fambro, William||African-American||Griffin||Spalding||Georgia||1903||Insulted white home|||
|Banks, Isadore||59||African-American||Marion||Crittenden||Arkansas||1954||Being prosperous|||
|Unknown male||African-American||Marion||Crittenden||Arkansas||1930s||Teaching the black children of Marked Tree, Arkansas to read||Burned, sign posted "run niggers run!".|
|Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.|
|Clark, Jumbo||African-American||High Springs||Alachua||Florida||1904||Assault of 14 year old white girl||Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.|
|Jay Lynch||28||White||Missouri||Barton||Missouri||May 28, 1919||Murder||Hanged.|
|White, Henry||African-American||Campville||Alachua||Florida||1913||Found under white woman's bed||Hanged, noose broke, shot.|
|Newberry Six lynchings (Baskins, Rev. Josh J.,
McHenry, Andrew, and
|Adults||African-American||Newberry||Alachua||Florida||1916||Helping a man who had shot and killed a constable||James Dennis was shot. The others were hanged. Mary Dennis had two children and was pregnant. Stella Young had four children.|
|Wilson, Abraham||African-American||Newberry||Alachua||Florida||1923||Cattle stealing||Serving 6-month sentence when taken from jail and hanged.|
|Buddington, George||55||African-American||Waldo||Alachua||Florida||1926||Attempted to collect debt from a white woman at gunpoint||Mob broke lock on jail, took Buddington out of town and shot him to death.|
|Pyszko, Marian||54||Polish Jew||Detroit||Wayne||Michigan||1975||He was white and was in the wrong place at the wrong time.||Killed by African American youths who wanted a white victim.|
|Green, Ernest, and Charlie Lang||14, 15||African-American||Shubuta ("hanging bridge")||Clarke||Mississippi||1942||Attempted rape.||:101|
|Johnson, Ed||23-24||African-American||Chattanooga||Hamilton||Tennessee||1906||Rape of white woman||Sheriff and two others sentenced to 6 months in jail, three others with 3 months, for abetting the lynching. Only criminal case ever with direct involvement of the U.S. Supreme Court; see United States v. Shipp|
|Clark, Andrew and Major; Alma and Maggie House||16, 20, 16, 20||African-American||Shubuta ("hanging bridge")||Clarke||Mississippi||1918||Alleged murder of dentist||Dentist had affairs with both sisters, who were pregnant, likely with his child; the brothers had romantic interest in the girls. After the lynching the babies were seen squirming in their mothers bellies.|
|Clark, James||African-American||Eau Gallie||Brevard||Florida||1926||Rape of a white girl||No attempt to verify crime nor identify murderers:Last known lynching in Brevard County|
|Williams, Elbert||African-American||Brownsville||Haywood||Tennessee||1940||Registering to vote and starting an NAACP chapter.||Last reported lynching in Tennessee.|
|Brown, Will||41||African-American||Omaha||Douglas||Nebraska||1919||Rape||Part of the Omaha race riot of 1919|
|Williams, Eugene||African-American||Chicago||Cook||Illinois||1919||Racial unrest||A white officer refused to arrest the murderer, and instead arrested a black man who complained about it.|
|Robinson, Robert||African-American||Chicago||Cook||Illinois||1919||He was black, and they wanted to kill a black||Robinson was an Army Reserve veteran.|
|Ashley, Bob||African-American||Dublin||Laurens||Georgia||1919||Hoped to shoot someone else||A group of men thought another man might be inside Ashley's house, so they shot into the house, mortally wounding Ashley.|
|Wright, Cleo||26||African-American||Sikeston||Scott||Missouri||1942||Home invasion, attempted murder, attempted rape, resisting arrest||Around 100 black people left Sikeston and never returned.|
|Walters, Lemuel||African-American||Longview||Gregg||Texas||1919||Consensual sex with white woman||The report of the affair and the subsequent coverup led to the Longview riots.|
|Richards, Benny||African-American||Warrenton||Warren||Georgia||1919||Accused of murdering his ex-wife and shooting 5 others||300 men lynched Richards, a farmer.|
|Clay, Lloyd||African-American||Vicksburg||Warren||Mississippi||1919||False rape accusation||1000 men broke through three steel doors to abduct Clay from jail before hanging, shooting, and burning him.|
|Waters, Jim||African-American||Johnson||Georgia||1919||Rape accusation||Investigation closed in one hour with no witnesses interviewed.|
|Livingston, Frank||25||African-American||El Dorado||Union||Arkansas||1919||False murder accusation||One of many returning WWI veterans lynched in 1919.|
|Miller, William||African-American||Brighton||Jefferson||Alabama||1908||Labor activist||Jefferson County had the highest number of lynchings in Alabama (29).|
|Washington, Berry||72||African-American||Milan||Dodge and Telfair||Georgia||1919||Defended black girls from white home invaders.||Many black homes burned to discourage citizens from coming forward|
|Chaney, James||21||African-American||Philadelphia||Neshoba||Mississippi||1964||Civil rights worker||A federal jury in 1967 convicted the sheriff and six others of conspiracy to violate civil rights; they received minor punishment. A state jury in 2005 found the Ku Klux Klan organizer, Edgar Ray Killen, guilty of three counts of manslaughter; he died in prison. National outrage contributed to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964.|
|Jordan, James||Adult||African-American||Waverly||Sussex||Virginia||1925||Married woman "attacked" in her home.||The case and two others helped lead to the Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, the first state law against lynching.|
|Armwood, George||23||African-American||Princess Anne||Somerset||Maryland||1933||Attempted assault and rape||Grand jury declined to indict any of the lynchers identified by State Police. Last lynching in Maryland.|
|Taylor, George||African-American||Rolesville||Wake||North Carolina||1918||Rape of a white woman||No charges were filed. There is a Web site on this lynching.|
|Estes, Siles||African-American||Hodgenville||LaRue||Kentucky||1901||"Forcing...a 15 year old boy...to commit a crime."|||
|Steers, Jennie||Adult||African-American||rural area near Shreveport||Caddo||Louisiana||1903||Poisoning daughter of a planter||:70|
|Morris, Frank||49-50||African-American||Ferriday||Concordia||Louisiana||1964||"Flirting" with white females||:152|
|Byrd Jr., James||49||African-American||Jasper||Jasper||Texas||1998||None (white supremacists)||Dragged to death behind a car, until his head hit a culvert. Perpetrators convicted; two executed, one to life imprisonment.|
|Young, Albert (or Arthur)||21||African-American||Perry||Taylor||Florida||1922||Murder of a white schoolteacher||Tortured, then burned alive|
|Scott, James T. (Janitor at University of Missouri)||35-56||African-American||Columbia||Boone||Missouri||1923||Raping the white daughter of a professor.||Before he could stand trial, a mob broke him out of jail and hanged him. The daughter would later identify a different man as her rapist. Jury found perpetrator innocent in 11 minutes. Memorial plaque erected 2016.|
|White, George||Adult||African-American||Wilmington||New Castle||Delaware||1903||Assaulting teenage girl and leaving her to die||Taken from county workhouse and burned alive. No one was prosecuted.|
|Walker, Zachariah||20-24||African-American||Coatesville||Chester||Pennsylvania||1911||Killing of a police officer, possibly in self-defense||Taken from hospital room and burned alive. Fifteen men and teenage boys were indicted, but all were acquitted at trials.|
|Clayton, Elias, Elmer Jackson, and Isaac McGhie||20-23||African-American||Duluth||St. Louis||Minnesota||1920||Rape of a teenage girl||Taken from jail by mob, given mock trials, beaten and hanged from light-post. No one was prosecuted.|
|Holmes, John, and Thomas Thurmond||29
|White||San Jose||Santa Clara||California||1933||Kidnapping and murder of department store heir Brooke Hart||An estimated 10,000 people witnessed the lynching. California Governor James Rolph called the act "a fine lesson for the whole nation."|
|Higginbotham, Elwood||28||African-American||Oxford||Lafayette||Mississippi||1935||Killed in self-defense a white man that attacked him after he complained about the white man's cattle running over his field.||Killed when jury did not bring back guilty verdict promptly. Widow and extended family immediately left Mississippi.|
|Jennings, Chilton||28||African-American||Gilmer||Upshur County||Texas||July 24, 1919||Assaulted a white women, Mrs. Virgie Haggard||He was arrested and a mob of about 1,000 white people stormed the jail and broke down the door with sledgehammers. A noose was placed around his neck and he was dragged by horse to the town square where he was hanged. Four people were later arrested for the lynching, murder indictments were served for Willie Howell, Charlie Lansdale, Fritz Boyd, and Francis Flanagan.|
|Thomas, Wade||African-American||Jonesboro||Craighead||Arkansas||1920||Killing a policeman||Taken from jail by a mob, hung, then riddled with bullets.|
|Patton, Nelse||African-American||Oxford||Lafayette||Mississippi||1908||Killing a white woman||Prominent attorney and former U.S. Senator William V. Sullivan, in his own words, "led the mob...and I'm proud of it".|
|Smith, Samuel||15||African-American||Nolensville||Williamson||Tennessee||1924||Stealing spark plugs in a garage.||Taken out of his hospital room in Nashville and lynched by a mob of masked men where he was first caught.|
|Albano, Angelo and Castenge Ficarotta||Italian||Tampa||Hillsborough County||Florida||1910||Complicity in a shooting|
|Lewis, Sanford||African-American||Fort Smith||Sebastian||Arkansas||1912||Shooting a constable||Five policemen fined $100 each for "nonfeasance of office". Entire police force fired. Mayor voted out. Man charged with lynching acquitted.|
|Phifer, Miles (or Relius)||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Assault of a white woman||Was wearing military uniform|
|Temple, Will||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||1919||Killing a police officer|||
|Miles Phifer, Robert Crosky and John Temple||African-American||Montgomery||Montgomery||Alabama||September 29, 1919||Assault of a white woman|||
|Williams, Matthew||23||African-American||Salisbury||Wicomico||Maryland||1931||Killing his employer||Taken forcibly from hospital. No indictment despite numerous witnesses.:9–10|
|Walker, David, his wife and four children||African-American||Hickman||Fulton||Kentucky||1908||Using inappropriate language with a white woman|||
|Grant, George||African-American||Darien||McIntosh||Georgia||1930||Sheriff: "I don't know who killed the nigger and I don't give a damn.":10|
|Gunn, Raymond||African-American||Maryville||Nodaway||Missouri||1931||Burned to death. National Guard stood by and watched.:10|
|Lowry, Henry ("a negro sharecropper")||African-American||Nodena||Mississippi||Arkansas||1921||Asked for his wages||Burned to death; crowd of 500:3|
|Hartfield, John||African-American||Ellisville||Jones||Mississippi||1919||Assaulting a young white woman||"The biggest newspaper in the state, Jackson Daily News, carried headlines announcing the exact time and place of the coming orgy. Ten thousand people answered the paper's invitation and they were addressed by the District Attorney, T. W. Wilson, while the lynching was going on.":9|
|Richardson, Bunk||African-American||Gadsden||Etowah||Alabama||1906||Sentenced to death without being charged with any crime; Governor commuted it to life imprisonment.||Mob seized him from the jail.|
|Wise, Mrs.||African-American||Frankfort (Frankford?)||Virginia (West Virginia?)||1931||Objected to her daughter being taken out for "rides" with white Klansmen.||:8|
|Tillis, Dave||African-American||Crockett||Houston||Texas||1932||"Demanded an accounting from his landlord. Charged with 'entering the bedroom of a white woman'".||:4–5|
|Hughes, George||African-American||Sherman||Grayson||Texas||1930||Pled guilty to criminal assault.||Courthouse stormed (during trial), burned down with Hughes locked in vault, fire hoses cut. Body then dragged behind car and hung, and fire lit under it. Followed by riot and destruction of black businesses. Two persons received two-year sentences for violence.|
|Parker, John||African-American||Conway||Faulkner||Arkansas||1931||Stealing some peaches||:4|
|Abram Smith||19||African-American||Marion||Grant||Indiana||1930||Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape||No charges filed.|
|Till, Emmett||14||African-American||Money||LeFlore||Mississippi||1955||Flirting with white woman||Beaten and mutilated before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Perpetrators acquitted by all-white jury, then openly admitted they did it. Historical markers shot and defaced 2006-2018.|
|Anthony Crawford||51||African-American||Abbeville||Abbeville||South Carolina||1916||Offensive language||Coroner's jury: "persons unknown"|
|Charles Wright[verification needed]||21||African-American||Rosewood||Levy||Florida||1930||Homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape||No charges filed.|
|Claude Neal||23||African-American||Greenwood||Jackson||Florida||1934||Rape and murder of 19 year old white female||Lynchers said he "didn't deserve a trial". Castrated, forced to consume his genitals, stabbed, burned with hot irons, toes and fingers removed, hung, body tied behind automobile. Followed by Marianna riots. Important case in helping to bring lynching to an end.|
|Dick Rowland (attempted lynching)||19||African-American||Tulsa||Tulsa||Oklahoma||1921||Sexual assault on white girl||Conflict between would-be lynchers and defenders led to the Tulsa Race Riot.|
|Ell Persons||about 50||African-American||Memphis||Shelby||Tennessee||1917||Raping and killing a white girl||No charges filed.|
|Fred Rochelle||16||African-American||Bartow||Polk||Florida||1901||Murder and rape of a white woman||Doused with kerosene and burned. Special train from Lakeland to see the "barbecue".|
|McIlherron, Jim ||African-American||Estill Springs||Franklin||Tennessee||1918||Killing two white people||Tortured, then burned alive. Spectators came from as far as 50 miles away. Postcards sold. "No information sufficient to indict."|
|Jesse Washington||17||African-American||Waco||McLennan||Texas||1916||Murder; Washington confessed and a jury found him guilty.||Dragged behind car, castrated, fingers cut off, ear cut off, burned alive. Professionally photographed; pictures sold as postcards. Lynching of "political value" to Sheriff and to the Judge who presided over his trial. "On the way to the scene of the burning, people on every hand took a hand in showing their feelings in the matter by striking the Negro with anything obtainable, some struck him with shovels, bricks, clubs and others stabbed him and cut him until when he was strung up his body was a solid color of red.":5|
|Carter, John||38||African-American||Little Rock||Pulaski||Arkansas||1927||Attacking a white woman and her mother||No charges filed; "mob" responsible.|
|July Perry||52||African-American||Ocoee||Orange||Florida||1920||Sign on body: "This is what we do to niggers that vote."||Prosperous black farmer. See Ocoee massacre.|
|Leo Frank||31||Jewish||Marietta||Cobb||Georgia||1915||Killing a 13-year-old girl||No charges filed; posthumously pardoned.|
|Mary Turner||18||African-American||Bridge joining Brooks County and Lowndes County, Georgia||Georgia||1918||Publicly opposed and threatened legal action against white people who had murdered her husband, unfairly accused (according to her) of killing an abusive landowner.||"Hung her upside down from a tree, doused her in gasoline and motor oil and set her on fire. Turner was still alive when a member of the mob split her abdomen open with a knife and her unborn child fell on the ground. The baby was stomped and crushed as it fell to the ground. Turner's body was riddled with hundreds of bullets."|
|Hayes Turner||25||African-American||Morven||Brooks||Georgia||1918||Accused of helping kill an abusive landowner.||Wife Mary killed next day for defending him.|
|Reuben Stacey (also found as Rubin Stacy)||37||African-American||Fort Lauderdale||Broward||Florida||1935||Assault with a knife||Law enforcement officer; grand jury refused to indict.|
|Carter, Sam||45||African-American||Rosewood||Levy||Florida||1923||Assault, rape, and robbery of a white woman||Tortured. Shot before being hanged. See Rosewood massacre.|
|Pitts, Slab||African-American||Toyah||Reeves||Texas||1906||Living with a white woman||Dragged to death before being hung.|
|Shipp, Thomas||18||African-American||Marion||Grant||Indiana||1930||Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape||No charges filed.|
|Willie Earle||24||African-American||Greenville||Greenville||South Carolina||1947||Killing of taxi driver||31 suspects charged; all acquitted.|
|Willie James Howard||15||African-American||Live Oak||Suwannee||Florida||1944||Sending Christmas card with "a note expressing his affection" to a white girl.||Forced to jump to his death in the Suwanee River. Grand jury refused to indict.|
|Parker, Mack Charles||22 or 23||African-American||Bridge over Pearl River between Mississippi and Louisiana||Pearl River||Mississippi||1959||Rape and kidnapping of a white woman; charges possibly fabricated.||No one indicted.|
|Donald, Michael||19||African-American||Mobile||Mobile||Alabama||1981||None (Klan looked to kill a black man because killer of white policeman got mistrial).||Three Klansmen (Henry Hays, James Knowles, and Benjamin Cox) were convicted of Donald's murder. Henry Hays was sentenced to death and executed in the electric chair in 1997. James Knowles and Benjamin Cox were sentenced to life in prison. A civil suit against the United Klans of America caused their bankruptcy.|
|Winfred Rembert||16-20||African-American||Cuthbert||Randolph||Georgia||Early 1960s||Fighting with deputy while in jail for stealing car to get away from two men shooting at him.||Survived. As of 2019, Rembert is a successful leatherwork artist. He has had at least two documentary films made about his story.|
|Name||Age||Ethnicity||City||County or Parish||State||Year||Accusation||Comment|
|McClelland, Brandon||24||African-American||Paris||Lamar||Texas||2008||None (white supremacists)||Dragged to death behind car. Prosecutor dropped charges, citing a "lack of evidence".|
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The woman sent a telegram to the next station stating that Scott had insulted her. When the train stopped, Scott was removed by a deputy sheriff. From there the story followed the usual lynching pattern. A mob "over-powered" the sheriff and killed the Negro. The coroner’s jury returned the usual verdict, "Death at the hands of parties unknown."
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