Nambikwaran languages

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Nambikwaran
Geographic
distribution
Mato Grosso, Brazil
Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Subdivisions
Glottolognamb1299[1]
Nambikwaran languages.png

The Nambikwaran languages are a language family of half a dozen languages, all spoken in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil. They have traditionally been considered dialects of a single language, but at least three of them are mutually unintelligible.

The varieties of Mamaindê are often seen as dialects of a single language, but are treated as separate Northern Nambikwaran languages by Ethnologue. Sabanê is a single speech community and thus has no dialects, while the Nambikwara language has been described as having eleven.[2]

The total number of speakers is estimated to be about 1,500, with Nambikwara proper being 80% of that number.[3] Most Nambikwara are monolingual but some young men speak Portuguese.[4] Especially the men of the Sabanê group are trilingual, speaking both Portuguese and Mamainde.[5]

Genetic relations

Price (1978) proposes a relationship with Kanoê (Kapixaná), but this connection is not widely accepted.[6]

Language contact

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Aikanã, Irantxe, Itonama, Kanoe, Kwaza, Peba-Yagua, Arawak, Bororo, and Karib language families due to contact.[7]

Varieties

Jolkesky (2016)

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):[7]

(† = extinct)

Nambikwara

Loukotka (1968)

Below is a full list of Nambikwaran language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[8]

Mason (1950) lists the following varieties under "Nambicuara proper":[9]

Mason (1950)

  • Northeastern
    • Eastern: Cocozu
    • Northeastern: Anunzé
  • Southwestern
    • Western: Tamaindé
    • Central and Southern
      • Uaintazu
      • Kabishi
      • Tagnani
      • Tauité
      • Taruté
      • Tashuité

Sabane is listed by Mason (1950) as "Pseudo-Nambicuara" (Northern).

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for various Nambikwaran languages.[8]

gloss Tauité Sabané Anunze Elotasu Kokozú Tagnaní Tamaindé Nene Tarundé
one améro knakná kenáge etegenõ ganagidzyare banuré kanákero
two baléne haːro searu dehaunõ bandyere lauré baʔãdo
head ua-negetü dwa-haniːkin toa-nekisú ga-nakitú nuhi-naite nu-naite
tongue tayú-hendü uai-lehrú año-heru toái-herú uai-hendé noio-hidnde nuiú-endé nui-edende
hand toái-kizeː depibá uai-kizé dwa-hikisu toái-ikisú ua-hité nuhiː-hĩte nuna-noré
woman akiːnaʔñazé dusé dosú temoreː ndenore tenoré denõ
water ari uarazé iñausu unsazú narutundú nahirinde narundé náru
sun utianezeː yóta ikidazé udiʔenikisu uterikisú chondí nahnde naneré
maize guyakizeː kayátsu kayátsu giaté kaiate kiakinindé kiáteninde
parrot anʔanzí kakaitezé ãhru áhlu aundaré aúndere
bow arankizeː ukizé úkisu hukisú huté hute aindé
white eːseːnanzeː pãte kuidisú han ahéndesu déʔende hanidzare haniʔna

Proto-language

Proto-Nambikwaran
Proto-Nambiquara
Reconstruction ofNambikwaran languages

Proto-Nambiquara reconstructions by Price (1978):[10]

gloss Proto-Nambikwaran
‘maize, corn’ *ka³yat³
‘tapir’ *hv³¹ũː¹m
‘moon’ *h'e³¹v³
‘water (n)’ *na1pə̃³¹
‘now’ *hi¹n
‘water’ *yaut³
‘to tie’ *t'ait¹
‘to walk’ *h'ai²
‘that’ *tei²l
‘here’ *tiː¹
‘bow’ *pok'³
‘wing’ *n'əi³C
‘to hit’ *su³l
‘to drink’ *naː²
‘animal’ *ha³no³la³
‘mouth’ *youː²
‘good’ *məu³li⁴
‘white’ *pãn³
‘to play’ *ləuː²n
‘head’ *naik³
‘hair’ *ĩć³
‘dog’ *waiː³yvl³
‘to fall’ *hi²
‘road’ *ha³tẽp³
‘savannah’ *mãl³
‘to sing’ *pain³
‘grass’ *sit³
‘meat’ *sĩn³
‘house’ *s'ip³
‘bark, shell’ *kv³ləu³
‘to dig’ *'uh³
‘sky’ *h'əu³p(an⁴)
‘to smell’ *nh'õn³
‘horn’ *na³
‘rain’ *ha³mə̃i³
‘ashes’ *Cv³nõn³
‘snake’ *t'ep³
‘to scratch’ *kɨn²
‘to eat’ *yain³
‘long’ *ləː²
‘heart’ *yv³lã¹k
‘string’ *ẽp³
‘string’ *nu²
‘to run’ *hip³
‘to chop’ *tau³
‘child’ *mə̃ić³
‘to give’ *õː¹
‘to lie (down)’ *ć'aː¹
‘tooth’ *wiː³
‘day’ *lãn²ti³
‘two’ *p'aː¹l(in¹)
‘to sleep’ *ha³mũ³n'i²
‘he’ *pai³
‘his’ *na²
‘to rub’ *lɨ¹nɨ³
‘to listen’ *ain³
‘I’ *t'ai²l
‘my’ *t'a²
‘knife’ *yu³l
‘to speak’ *sɨ¹
‘beans’ *ka³mat³
‘liver’ *p'i⁴l
‘arrow’ *hauːt'¹
‘flower’ *yãuć³
‘fire’ *yat²
‘leaf’ *ha⁴ćeih³
‘leaf’ *n'ãn'⁴
‘cold’ *liː²
‘fog’ *wi³Ca²
‘tobacco’ *h'əić³
‘fat’ *pa³nẽit¹
‘man’ *en³t'
‘to swell’ *wa⁴kaː³n
‘knee’ *kat'³
‘to throw’ *ta⁴naː¹m
‘there’ *ti⁴paː³t
‘firewood’ *(ha³)ne¹
‘to clean’ *pəuː¹t
‘to clean’ *han³
‘tongue’ *pəi³l
‘smooth’ *wa³suː³
‘worm’ *yõ³yõ³C
‘far’ *uː²l
‘monkey’ *huć³
‘mother’ *na²C
‘hand’ *pik'²
‘left hand’ *wãt³
‘husband’ *wei³ćãi¹
‘to kill’ *hãːn³
‘forest’ *ća³w'əin³
‘to bite’ *ĩː³m
‘woman’ *(ha³)t'eh³
‘to swim’ *həup²
‘nose’ *a⁴miː³ć
‘night’ *ka³na³C
‘to see’ *ẽː²p
‘eye’ *ei³ka³
‘jaguar’ *ya³na¹l
‘where’ *pai¹
‘ear’ *n'a⁴
‘bone’ *soh³
‘egg’ *nau³
‘father’ *wãi¹
‘father’ *mĩː³n
‘bird’ *ai³k'
‘tree, stick’ *ha³piː³ć
‘foot’ *yu³k'
‘stone’ *t'a³pa³l
‘to hold’ *hi³
‘breast’ *nũn⁴k
‘fish’ *h'ain³
‘feather’ *w'əit¹
‘little’ *ći³qi⁴hn
‘leg’ *nəi²k
‘heavy’ *sa³t'ei¹
‘louse’ *ka³nãip¹ni³
‘black’ *(ta³)ton³
‘pull’ *sĩn³ćouː¹
‘when’ *na³
‘what’ *Ca¹tei²
‘to burn’ *thəp⁴
‘hot’ *mãn²
‘round’ *ma³tũ³ma³tũn³
‘straight’ *wain³
‘to laugh’ *kãm³li¹
‘spit’ *ka²sip¹
‘dry season’ *ka³məi³kəu³n
‘dry’ *lon¹
‘seed’ *kɨ⁴
‘to sit’ *yauː²
‘dirty’ *n'aː¹ć'iː³
‘fear’ *sup³l
‘earth’ *k'ĩp³
‘earth’ *nu³
‘crooked’ *ta³ko³ta³kon³
‘guts’ *ka³nai¹
‘one’ *ka³naː³ka⁴(nat³)
‘fingernail, claw’ *kai³l
achiote *top³
‘old’ *tĩn³
‘wind’ *'it³
‘green’ *sa³t'əiː³sa³i'əin³
‘red’ *həi³n
‘to come’ *mãː²
‘to live’ *ka³t'en³
‘to fly’ *h'in³
‘you’ *w'ai²n
‘your’ *mã⁴
‘to return’ *wam²l
‘to vomit’ *lop³

Bibliography

  • Costa, Januacele Francisca da; W. Leo M. Wetzels. 2008. Proto-Nambikwara Sound Structure. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
  • Araujo, G. A. (2004). A Grammar of Sabanê: A Nambikwaran Language. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. 94. Utrecht: LOT.
  • Gomes, M. A. C. F. (1991). Dicionário Mamaindé-Português/Português-Mamaindé. Cuiabá: SIL.
  • Kroeker, M. H. (1996). Dicionário escolar bilingüe Nambikuara-Português, Português-Nambikuara. Porto Velho: SIL.
  • Price, D. P. (1978). The Nambiquara Linguistic Family. Anthropological Linguistics 20:14-37.

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nambiquaran". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian languages: the historical linguistics of Native America. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  3. ^ Nambiquaran languages. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2012-07-29.
  4. ^ Kroeker, 2001 p. 1
  5. ^ Ethnologue. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2012-07-29.
  6. ^ Price, David P. 1978. The Nambiquara linguistic family. Anthropological Linguistics 20 (1): 14–37.
  7. ^ a b Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  8. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  9. ^ Mason, John Alden (1950). "The languages of South America". In Steward, Julian (ed.). Handbook of South American Indians. 6. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. pp. 157–317.
  10. ^ Price, D. (1978). The Nambiquara Linguistic Family. In Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 14-37. Published by: Trustees of Indiana University. Accessed from DiACL, 9 February 2020.
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