Outline of political science
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science:
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Politics – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions. Politics is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate, academic, and religious segments of society.
- 1 Fields of study of political science
- 2 Related disciplines
- 3 Political theory
- 4 Decision-making
- 5 Political institutions
- 6 Political behavior
- 7 Political disfunction
- 8 Types of polities and forms of government
- 9 Political ideologies and philosophies
- 10 Governments of the world
- 11 Political issues and policies
- 12 Politics by region
- 13 History of politics
- 14 Political scholars
- 15 Influential literature
- 16 See also
- 17 Further reading
- 18 References
- 19 External links
Fields of study of political science
- Comparative politics
- Development studies
- Geopolitics and political geography
- Institutional theory
- International relations
- Nationalism studies
- Political behavior
- Political economy
- Political fiction
- Political research methodology
- Political sociology
- Political theory and philosophy
- Positive political theory
- Psephology – study of elections
- Policy analysis and Policy studies
- Strategic studies
- Social science
- Anarchist schools of thought hold that all forms of hierarchy and authority are illegitimate.
- Democratic theory
- Athenian democracy a form of Greek democracy in which free male citizens had a direct vote on all government actions.
- Republicanism a strain of political thought which was common among the city-states of the Italian Renaissance, such as the Republic of Venice.
- Representative democracy
- Direct democracy
- Radical democracy
- International relations theory
- Power in international relations
- Realism in international relations
- Idealism in international relations
- Marxist international relations theory
- Functionalism in international relations
- Critical international relations theory
- Marxist schools of thought
- Peace and conflict studies
- Political geography
- Political symbolism
- Theories of state
- Electoral systems
- Plurality voting allows each voter to vote for a single candidate, with the candidate with most votes being the winner. It is often combined with single-member districts, resulting in a majoritarian democracy.
- Proportional representation ensures that proportions of representation allocated in the elected body reflect their proportions of support among the electorate. Often combined with multi-member districts to produce consensus democracy.
- Mixed electoral systems
- Game theory
- Political Campaigning
- Political communications
- Political qualifications
Branches of government
The separation of powers is typically set in the constitution or basic law in order to achieve checks and balances within government. The typical model has three branches, and is referred to as the trias politica.
- Legislature, deliberates and passes laws.
- Executive, executes laws.
- Head of state, formal, often symbolic, leader of state. Sometimes has veto power over proposed legislation.
- Head of government, the person(s) in charge of day-to-day affairs of the state. Usually heads a cabinet, a Council of Ministers or a Council of State.
- Judiciary, often involved in politics through judicial review.
- Party systems
- Party coalition governments
- Political culture
- Peace and conflict studies
- Political psychology
- Political campaigning
- Power politics
- Cloward–Piven strategy
- Economic voting
- Altruism theory of voting
- Coattail effect
- Split-ticket voting
- Tactical voting
- Paradox of voting
- Protest vote
- Political conflict
- Civil disobedience
- Civil war
- Law of war
- Political corruption
Types of polities and forms of government
- Traditional authority, political society which has not gone through state formation.
- Unitary state
- Regional integration
- Global governance
By formal power structure
By source of power
- Autocracy, the source of power is the leader.
- Democracy, the source of power are the people through popular sovereignty.
- Ethnocracy, the source of power is ethnicity.
- Meritocracy, the source of power is talent.
- Stratocracy, the source of power is the military.
- Theocracy, the source of power is God(s).
- Oligarchy, the source of power is the elite.
- Plutocracy, the source of power is wealth.
Political ideologies and philosophies
- Left-wing politics, usually focused on increasing egalitarianism.
- Centrism, usually defined by highly pragmatic politics.
- Liberalism, defined by high valuing of liberty.
- Right-wing politics, often defined by opposition to social change, and a veneration of tradition.
- Centre-right politics
- Far-right politics, political ideas which are described as reactionary, ultranationalist, chauvinistic, xenophobi or racist.
- Identity politics, political ideologies concerned with the interests of the members of a specific group.
Governments of the world
Political issues and policies
- Animal rights
- Civil and political rights, usually related to topics of negative liberty.
- Economic, social and cultural rights, usually cover issues of positive liberty.
- Digital rights
- Labor rights
- Right to an adequate standard of living
- Right to clothing
- Right to development
- Right to education
- Right to food
- Right to health
- Right to housing
- Right to Internet access
- Right to science and culture
- Right to social security
- Right to water
- Right to work
- LGBT rights
- Minority rights
- Women's rights
- Agricultural policy
- Energy policy
- Fiscal policy
- Industrial policy
- Investment policy
- Monetary policy
- Tax policy
- Arms control
- Criminal justice
- Space policy
- International Trade
- Military policy
- Cultural policy
- Environmental policy
- Drug policy
- Education policy and reform
- Immigration law
- Race relations
- Religion and politics
- Health policy
- Welfare state
Politics by region
Foreign relations by region
Political parties by region
History of politics
- History of political science
- History of political thinking
- Political history
- List of political scientists
- List of political philosophers
- List of political theorists
- The Art of War – by Sun Tsu (c. 544–496 BC)
- History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides (c. 460 – c. 400 BC)
- The Republic and Laws – by Plato (427–347 BC)
- The Politics and Nicomachean Ethics – Aristotle (384–322 BC)
- Arthashastra – Chāṇakya (c. 350–283 BC)
- Meditations – Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor 161–180 CE
- The Prince – by Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527)
- The Book of Five Rings – Miyamoto Musashi (c. 1584––1645)
- The Wealth of Nations – by Adam Smith (1723–1790)
- On War – by Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831)
- Leviathan – Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679)
- The Communist Manifesto – by Karl Marx (1818-1883)
- Constitutional economics
- Food politics
- Government simulation game
- Music and politics
- Rule According to Higher Law
- Office politics
- Official statistics
- Organizational politics
- Political activism
- Political corruption
- Political criticism
- Political economy
- Political fiction (list)
- Political movement
- Political party (list by country)
- Political power
- Political psychology
- Political spectrum
- Theories of Political Behavior
- Roskin, M.; Cord, R. L.; Medeiros, J. A.; Jones, W. S. (2007). Political Science: An Introduction. 10th ed. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-242575-9 (10). ISBN 978-0-13-242575-9 (13).
- Tausch, A.; Prager, F. (1993). Towards a Socio-Liberal Theory of World Development. Basingstoke: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's Press.
- Oxford Handbooks of Political Science – ten-volume set covering the political science topics political methodology, public policy, political theory, political economy, comparative politics, contextual political analysis, international relations, Law and Politics, political behavior, and political institutions. The general editor of the series is Robert E. Goodin.
- Suissa, Judith (2001). "Anarchism, Utopias and Philosophy of Education". Journal of Philosophy of Education 35 (4). pp. 627–646. doi:10.1111/1467-9752.00249.
- Mill, John Stuart (1861). "Chapter VII, Of True and False Democracy; Representation of All, and Representation of the Majority only". Considerations on Representative Government. London: Parker, Son, & Bourn.
- Carlisle, Rodney P., ed., The Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right, Volume 2: The Right (Thousand Oaks, California, United States; London, England; New Delhi, India: Sage Publications, 2005) p. 693.
- Mabbett 1964 "References to the work in other Sanskrit literature attribute it variously to Viṣṇugupta, Cāṇakya and Kauṭilya. The same individual is meant in each case. The Pańcatantra explicitly identifies Chanakya with Viṣṇugupta."
- Oxford Handbook Of Political Theory
- Walsh, Mary (1 May 2008). "The Oxford Handbook of Political Theory". Contemporary Political Theory. 7 (2): 232–234. doi:10.1057/cpt.2008.2.
- American Political Science Association
- European Consortium for Political Research
- International Political Science Association
- Political Studies Association of the UK
- PROL: Political Science Research Online (prepublished research)
- Truman State University Political Science Research Design Handbook
- A New Nation Votes: American Elections Returns 1787-1825
- Political links resource