High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level. These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing.
A kame is a glacial landform, an irregularly shaped hill or mound composed of sand, gravel and till that accumulates in a depression on a retreating glacier, and is then deposited on the land surface with further melting of the glacier. Kames are often associated with kettles, and this is referred to as kame and kettletopography. The word kame is a variant of comb (kame, or kaim is the Old Scotch word for comb), which has the meaning "crest" among others. The geological term was introduced by Thomas Jamieson in 1874.
According to White, "kames were formed by meltwater which deposited more or less washed material at irregular places in and along melting ice. At places the material is very well washed and stratified; at others it is more poorly washed, with inclusions of till masses that fell from ice but were covered before they were completely washed. Kame gravels thus tend to be variable and range from fine to coarse grained and even to cobbly and boulder." Read more...
Selected mountain range
Northern part of the Eastern Highlands range as seen from Nyanga town.
The Eastern or 'East African Highlands' is a mountain range in the east of Zimbabwe and one of four distinct physiographic divisions on the African continent. It extends for about 300 kilometres (190 mi) along Zimbabwe's eastern border with Mozambique.
The range comprises three main mountain groups - Nyanga (to the north) which contains Zimbabwe's highest mountain Mount Nyangani, Africa's second-longest waterfall Mutarazi Falls and the Honde Valley which leads into Mozambique; Bvumba Mountains (centrally situated near the city of Mutare); and Chimanimani (to the south). These regions are all sparsely populated, highland country and are covered in rich grassland and forests. Read more...
Subaqueous volcanoes can be compared to subaerial volcanoes which are formed and erupt on land surface, or under the air. The major differences of volcanic eruptions are due to the effects of pressure, heat capacity or conductivity of water, the presence of steam and water rheology. The thermal conductivity of water is about 20 times that of air and steam has a thermal conductivity nearly 50 times that of water.
Subaqueous volcanoes are most commonly formed in oceans, but can also form in lakes, rivers and subglacial lakes. In improving our understanding of subaqueous volcanoes, it is important to consider the differences between the characteristics of modern and ancient approaches to the study. Modern studies offer fresh and unaltered observances, can see and map surface features and the water depth is known in areas that allow observation. Ancient studies have had stratigraphic exposure to sections, are easier to work on, have more and better exposures and have an existing relationship to resources. Read more...
Selected glacier-related article
Glacial action forming a cirque which may host a tarn
Climbers use a few different forms of shelter depending on the situation and conditions. Shelter is a very important aspect of safety for the climber as the weather in the mountains may be very unpredictable. Tall mountains may require many days of camping on the mountain. Read more...
Mountaineers descending mixed rock, snow and ice slope in winter High Tatras, Slovakia
Enlargement of area in rectangle of the previous image. On Earth the ridge would be called the terminal moraine of an alpine glacier. Picture taken with HiRISE under the HiWish program. Image from Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.
Shear or herring-bone crevasses on Emmons Glacier (Mount Rainier); such crevasses often form near the edge of a glacier where interactions with underlying or marginal rock impede flow. In this case, the impediment appears to be some distance from the near margin of the glacier.
A packrafter passes a wall of freshly exposed blue ice on Spencer Glacier, in Alaska. Glacial ice acts like a filter on light, and the more time light can spend traveling through ice, the bluer it becomes.
The Himalayas, the highest mountain range on Earth, seen from space
Picture of a mountaineer by Josef Feid Anastasius Grün
Glacier as seen by HiRISE under the HiWish program. Area in rectangle is enlarged in the next photo. Zone of accumulation of snow at the top. Glacier is moving down valley, then spreading out on plain. Evidence for flow comes from the many lines on surface. Location is in Protonilus Mensae in Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.
A drumlin field forms after a glacier has modified the landscape. The teardrop-shaped formations denote the direction of the ice flow.