Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States

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In response to court action in a number of states, the United States federal government and a number of state legislatures passed or attempted to pass legislation either prohibiting or allowing same-sex marriage or other types of same-sex unions.

On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges that a fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by the Fourteenth Amendment, and that states must allow same-sex marriage.

Federal level

In 1996, the United States Congress passed and President Bill Clinton signed Public Law 104-199, the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Section 3 of DOMA defines "marriage" and "spouse" for purposes of both federal law and any ruling, regulation, or interpretation by an administrative bureau or agency of the United States government.[1] The impact of Section 2 of DOMA, which relieves jurisdictions within the United States of any obligation to recognize same-sex relationships legally established in any other jurisdiction, is less clear.[2]

On March 16, 2011, companion bills were introduced by House and Senate Democrats to repeal DOMA. The bills were named the Respect for Marriage Act (RFMA).[3]

In United States v. Windsor, the Supreme Court was asked to determine the constitutionality of Section 3 of DOMA, which defines marriage for federal purposes as the union of a man and a woman.[4] On June 26, 2013, the Supreme Court ruled by a 5-4 vote that the Section 3 of DOMA is unconstitutional.[5]

The State Marriage Defense Act, introduced in the House of Representatives on January 9, 2014, would require the federal government to recognize the validity of a marriage based on a person's legal residence (place of domicile), rather than on the validity of the marriage when and where it was solemnized (place of celebration). The Obama administration has generally used the latter standard. Its sponsors described it as a way to clarify the federal government's response to Windsor and restore the ability of the a state to control the definition of marriage within its borders.[6][7]

In Obergefell v. Hodges, the Supreme Court was asked to determine the constitutionality of state bans on same-sex marriage licenses as well as state bans on recognition of same-sex marriages from other states. On June 26, 2015, the court ruled by a 5-4 vote that the Fourteenth Amendment obliges states to license same-sex marriages and to recognize same-sex marriages from other states.[8]

State level

Efforts to enable same-sex unions

Votes by state legislatures to recognize various types of same-sex unions, sorted by date:

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper house Lower house Governor Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia June 1992 Domestic partnership[9] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 1994 Domestic partnership[10][11] 21 17 41 26 Vetoed No No
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii March 1996 Domestic partnership[12] 14 11 Failed No No
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii June 1997 Reciprocal beneficiary relationship[13] 24 7 43 27 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 1998 Domestic partnership[14] 21 17 41 36 Vetoed No No
Flag of California.svg California October 1999 Domestic partnership[15] 23 13 41 38 Vetoed No No
Flag of California.svg California October 1999 Domestic partnership[16] 22 14 41 36 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont April 2000 Civil union[17] 19 11 79 68 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2001 Domestic partnership[18] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California August 2001 Domestic partnership (expansion)[19] 22 12 41 27 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California October 2001 Domestic partnership (expansion)[20] 23 11 41 32 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York August 2002 Domestic partnership[21] Passed 147 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York August 2002 Domestic partnership (expansion)[22] Passed 147 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2002 Domestic partnership (expansion)[23] 26 11 41 31 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2002 Domestic partnership (expansion)[24] 23 13 43 27 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia April 2003 Domestic partnership (expansion)[25] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2003 Domestic partnership (expansion)[26] 23 14 41 33 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey January 2004 Domestic partnership[27] 23 9 41 28 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine April 2004 Domestic partnership[28] 18 14 84 58 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia May 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[29] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[30] 23 12 46 29 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York September 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[31] Passed 141 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia December 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[32] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia January 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[33] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut April 2005 Civil union[34] 27 9 85 63 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2005 Domestic partnership[35] 31 16 83 50 Vetoed No No
Flag of California.svg California June 2005 Marriage[36] Failed No No
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island June 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[37][38] Passed No No
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[39][40] Passed No No
Flag of California.svg California September 2005 Marriage[41] 21 15 41 35 Vetoed No No
Flag of California.svg California September 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[42] 23 15 47 28 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[43] 21 14 47 32 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia December 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[44] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey January 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[45] 39 0 67 8 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia January 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[46] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York March 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[47] Passed 96 25 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine April 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[48] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[49] 114 27 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[50] 116 27 No No
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[51][52] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[53][52] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[54][55] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[56][55] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[57][58] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[59] 24 15 46 29 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[60] 23 15 47 31 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey December 2006 Civil union[61] 23 12 56 19 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia December 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[62] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire April 2007 Civil union[63] Failed No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington April 2007 Registered domestic partnership[64] 28 19 63 35 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon May 2007 Domestic partnership[65] 21 9 34 26 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine May 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[66] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire May 2007 Civil union[67] 14 10 243 129 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine June 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[68] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine June 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[69] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2007 Marriage[70] 85 61 No No
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[71][72] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2007 Marriage[73] 22 15 42 34 Vetoed No No
Flag of California.svg California October 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[74] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island October 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[75][72] Passed Passed Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire January 2008 Contractual cohabitation[76] Failed No No
Flag of New York.svg New York January 2008 Domestic partnership (expansion)[77] Passed No No
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2008 Domestic partnership[78] 33 31 No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington March 2008 Registered domestic partnership (expansion)[79][80]' 29 20 62 32 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine March 2008 Domestic partnership (expansion)[81] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland April 2008 Domestic partnership[82] 86 51 No No
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2008 Domestic partnership[83] 30 17 88 46 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2008 Domestic partnership[84] 27 20 86 47 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia May 2008 Domestic partnership (expansion)[85] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2009 Domestic partnership[86] 17 25 No No
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont April 2009 Marriage[87] 23 5 100 49 Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado April 2009 Designated beneficiary agreement[88] 23 10 41 24 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut April 2009 Marriage (codification)[89] 28 7 100 44 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine May 2009 Marriage[90] 21 14 89 58 Signed No No2
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia May 2009 Marriage (recognition only)[91][92] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington.svg Washington May 2009 Registered domestic partnership (expansion)[93] 30 18 62 35 Signed Yes Yes3
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia May 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[94] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine May 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[95] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada May 2009 Domestic partnership[96][97] 14 7 28 14 Vetoed1 Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire June 2009 Marriage[98] 14 10 198 176 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon June 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[99] 27 0 41 8 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin June 2009 Domestic partnership 17 16 50 48 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York August 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[100] Passed 142 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California October 2009 Out-of-state pre-proposition 8 marriage recognition[101] 24 14 44 27 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York December 2009 Marriage[102] 24 38 89 52 No No
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia December 2009 Marriage[103] N/A 11 2 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island January 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[104][105] Passed Passed Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island January 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[106][107] Passed Passed Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York January 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[108][109] 61 0 142 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey January 2010 Marriage[110] 14 20 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York March 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[111] 119 20 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York March 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[112][113] Passed 137 5 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[114][115] 132 9 No No
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota May 2010 Domestic partnership (only 1 entitlement)[116] 41 24 78 55 Vetoed No No
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii July 2010 Civil union[117] 18 7 31 20 Vetoed No No
Flag of New York.svg New York August 2010 Committed partnership[118][119] 50 11 107 26 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[120] 23 12 53 24 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois January 2011 Civil union[121][122][123] 32 24 61 52 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii February 2011 Civil union[124] 18 5 31 19 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2011 Domestic union[125] Failed No No
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland March 2011 Marriage[126][127] 25 21 No No
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado March 2011 Civil union[128][129] 23 12 No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington April 2011 Recognition of out-of-state union as registered domestic partnership[130] 28 19 58 39 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada May 2011 Recognition of out-of-state union as domestic partnership[131] 21 0 41 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington.svg Washington May 2011 Registered domestic partnership (expansion)[132] 27 21 57 40 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware May 2011 Civil union[133] 13 6 26 15 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada May 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[134] 11 10 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2011 Marriage[135] 33 29 80 63 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island July 2011 Civil union[136] 21 16 62 11 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California September 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[137] 22 13 52 25 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California October 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[138] 25 15 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California October 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[139] 24 13 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington.svg Washington February 2012 Marriage[140] 28 21 55 43 Signed Yes Yes3
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey February 2012 Marriage[141] 24 16 42 33 Vetoed No No
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland March 2012 Marriage[142] 25 22 72 67 Signed Yes Yes3
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2012 Domestic partnership (expansion)[143] 129 10 No No
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado May 2012 Civil union[144] 23 12 No No
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey August 2012 Civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[145] 21 11 41 33 Vetoed No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming January 2013 Domestic partnership[146] 24 35 No No
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado March 2013 Civil union[147] 21 14 39 26 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island May 2013 Marriage[148][149] 26 12 56 15 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware May 2013 Marriage[150] 12 9 23 18 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota May 2013 Marriage[151] 37 30 75 59 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada June 2013 Domestic partnership (expansion)[152] 21 0 41 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii November 2013 Marriage[153] 19 4 30 19 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois November 2013 Marriage[154][155] 32 21 61 54 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York February 2014 Marriage (codification)[156][157] 125 10 No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming February 2014 Marriage[158] 17 41 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2014 Domestic partnership (expansion)[159][160] 124 14 No No
Flag of California.svg California July 2014 Marriage (statutory codification)[161][162][163] 25 10 51 11 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia February 2015 Marriage (statutory codification)[164][165][166] 20 18 No No
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2015 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[167] 26 0 39 30 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico April 2015 Marriage (partial codification)[168][169] 35 5 37 10 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada June 2015 Domestic partnership (expansion)[170] 21 0 42 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada June 2015 Domestic partnership (expansion)[171] 19 0 41 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey June 2015 Marriage, civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[172] 21 13 43 25 Vetoed No No
Flag of Maine.svg Maine June 2015 Marriage (expansion)[173] 35 0 141 0 Vetoed1 Yes Yes
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon July 2015 Marriage (statutory codification)[174] 18 11 40 18 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Guam.svg Guam August 2015 Marriage (codification)[175][176][177] N/A 13 2 N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York September 2015 Marriage (codification)[178][179] 60 0 146 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia December 2015 Domestic partnership (expansion)[180] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon March 2016 Marriage (statutory codification)[181][182] 18 11 43 13 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York March 2016 Marriage (codification)[183][184] 129 12 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2016 Domestic partnership (expansion)[185] 120 15 No No
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado June 2016 Conversion of civil union into marriage[186][187] 34 0 52 13 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina June 2016 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[188] Passed No No
Flag of California.svg California July 2016 Marriage and domestic partnership (statutory codification)[189][190] 34 0 63 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota January 2017 Marriage (statutory codification)[191][192] 15 31 No No
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2017 Marriage (partial codification)[193][194] 63 0 No No
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[195] 26 0 74 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[196] 29 0 69 3 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[197] 27 0 68 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2017 Domestic partnership (expansion)[198] 138 2 45 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada May 2017 Marriage (statutory codification)[199] 20 1 28 10 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada June 2017 Domestic partnership (expansion)[200] 21 0 41 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2017 Marriage (codification)[201] 62 0 139 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey June 2017 Marriage, civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[202] 22 15 No No
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina July 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[203] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine July 2017 Marriage (codification)[204] Passed Passed N/A4 Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland January 2018 Domestic partnership (expansion)[205] 135 2 45 1 Vetoed No No
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2018 Marriage (partial codification)[206] 60 2 No No
Flag of New York.svg New York March 2018 Marriage (codification)[207] 129 6 No No
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[208] 27 0 70 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[209] 23 0 73 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[210] 23 4 44 24 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[211] 25 3 45 26 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2018 Domestic partnership (expansion)[212] 114 17 No No
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota May 2018 Marriage (codification)[213] 34 33 78 50 Vetoed No No
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey May 2018 Marriage, civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[214] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York June 2018 Marriage (codification)[215] 57 4 No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire June 2018 Marriage (equalization of marriageable age)[216] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[217] 35 0 96 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[218] N/A 38 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico March 2019 Marriage (partial codification)[219] 53 2 No No
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 2019 Marriage (expansion: surrogacy)[220] 28 12 63 36 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico March 2019 Marriage (partial codification)[221] 32 8 40 25 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[222] N/A 45 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[223] 22 2 55 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[224] 29 0 69 4 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico April 2019 Marriage (partial codification)[225] 39 0 62 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2019 Marriage (expansion)[226] 34 10 121 15 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 2019 Marriage (expansion)[227] 31 14 133 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma May 2019 Marriage (expansion: surrogacy)[228] 33 10 84 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska May 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[229] N/A 40 3 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska May 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[230] N/A 33 8 Vetoed No No
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota May 2019 Marriage (codification)[231][232] 52 15 74 50 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island June 2019 Marriage (expansion)[233] 35 0 No No
Flag of Maine.svg Maine June 2019 Marriage (codification)[234] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware July 2019 Marriage (codification)[235] 20 1 37 4 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York October 2019 Marriage (codification)[236] 61 0 121 23 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York December 2019 Domestic partnership (expansion)[237][238] 59 0 122 24 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire January 2020 Marriage (codification)[239] Failed No No
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2020 Marriage (partial codification)[240] 42 0 64 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska February 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[241] N/A 47 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico February 2020 Marriage (partial codification)[242] 40 0 67 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[243] 28 12 63 34 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[244] 25 13 62 38 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[245] 33 6 58 42 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[246] 24 1 70 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[247] 27 0 71 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia April 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[248] 39 1 91 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2020 Marriage (expansion)[249][250] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia April 2020 Marriage (statutory codification)[251] 24 16 53 43 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York April 2020 Domestic partnership (expansion)[252][253] 62 0 131 11 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico June 2020 Marriage (codification)[254][255] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina June 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[256] 47 0 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire July 2020 Marriage (codification)[257] Passed 209 119 Pending
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada May 2017 Marriage (constitutional codification)[258][259] 19 2 27 14 N/A
May 2019 19 2 38 2
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 2020 Marriage and civil union (codification)[260] Pending Passed
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island 2020 Marriage (expansion)[261] 31 0 Pending
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts 2020 Marriage (expansion)[262][263] Pending Pending
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 2020 Marriage and civil union (partial codification)[264] Pending

Notes:

Efforts to prohibit same-sex unions

Votes by state legislatures to prohibit recognition of various types of same-sex unions, sorted by date:

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper House Lower house Governor Final
outcome1
Yes No Yes No
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland May 1973 Marriage[265] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Texas.svg Texas June 1973 Marriage[266][267] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma February 1975 Marriage[268] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona April 1975 Marriage[269] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia August 1975 Marriage[270] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah April 1977 Marriage[271] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Florida.svg Florida June 1977 Marriage[272][273][274] 37 0 101 11 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois June 1977 Marriage[275] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of California.svg California August 1977 Marriage[276] 23 5 68 2 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming October 1977 Marriage[277] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin July 1979 Marriage[278] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire July 1987 Marriage[279][280] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 1994 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[281] 11 12 No No
Flag of Guam.svg Guam May 1994 Marriage[282] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii June 1994 Marriage[283] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 1995 Marriage[284] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota January 1996 Marriage[285][286][287] 26 8 49 18 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho February 1996 Marriage[286][288] 24 6 66 4 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho March 1996 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[289] 28 4 59 6 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado March 1996 Marriage[290] Passed Passed Vetoed No No
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas April 1996 Marriage[286][291] 39 1 87 38 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia April 1996 Marriage[285][286][292] 47 0 135 10 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona May 1996 Marriage[285][286][293] 21 9 50 5 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska May 1996 Marriage and civil union[286][294][295] 16 3 31 9 N/A3 Yes Yes
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois May 1996 Marriage[296][297] 42 9 87 17 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee May 1996 Marriage[285][286] Passed 90 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina May 1996 Marriage[298][299] Passed 82 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan June 1996 Marriage[300][301] 31 2 88 14 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan June 1996 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[300][301] Passed 74 28 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware June 1996 Marriage[302] 17 3 39 0 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina June 1996 Marriage and recognition of out-of-state marriage[303][304][305] 41 4 98 10 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri July 1996 Marriage[306] 29 2 131 10 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California August 1996 Marriage[307] 20 21 Passed No No
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma September 1996 Marriage[285][286] 42 2 99 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania October 1996 Marriage[308][309] 43 5 189 13 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Mississippi (2001–2020).svg Mississippi February 1997 Marriage[310] 50 0 118 3 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas February 1997 Marriage[285][311] 34 0 92 2 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota February 1997 Marriage[285][312] 43 6 73 18 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Texas.svg Texas February 1997 Marriage[310][313] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Washington.svg Washington February 1997 Marriage[314] 33 15 63 35 Vetoed No No
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 1997 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[285][315] 40 0 87 9 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Maine.svg Maine March 1997 Marriage[316] 24 10 106 39 N/A3 Yes Yes2
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana April 1997 Marriage[317][318] 38 10 85 9 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Montana.svg Montana April 1997 Marriage and civil union[285][319] 45 5 73 23 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Florida.svg Florida May 1997 Recognition of out-of-state marriage and civil union[285][320] 33 5 97 19 N/A3 Yes Yes
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota June 1997 Marriage[286][321] 64 0 108 20 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado June 1997 Marriage[322] Passed Passed Vetoed No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington February 1998 Marriage[323][324] 34 11 65 28 Vetoed 4 Yes Yes2
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky April 1998 Marriage and recognition out-of-state marriage[286][325] 32 2 84 9 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama May 1998 Marriage[326] 30 0 79 12 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii November 1998 Marriage[285] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico March 1999 Marriage[327] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana July 1999 Marriage and recognition of out-of-state marriage[328] 32 0 95 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia March 2000 Marriage[329] Passed 96 3 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2000 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[330] 128 232 No No
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado May 2000 Marriage[331] Passed 37 28 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2001 Recognition of out-of-state civil union[332] 88 276 No No
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri July 2001 Marriage[333] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of American Samoa.svg American Samoa March 2003 Marriage[334] Failed No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2003 Recognition of out-of-state civil union[335] Failed No No
Flag of Texas.svg Texas May 2003 Recognition of out-of-state same-sex marriage and civil union[336] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin November 2003 Marriage[337][338] 22 10 68 29 Vetoed No No
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio February 2004 Marriage, recognition of out-of-state marriage, and civil union[285][339] 72 22 18 15 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2004 Civil union[285] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia April 2004 Civil union[285][340] 27 12 69 30 N/A3 Yes Yes
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire May 2004 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[341] 16 7 215 137 Signed Yes Yes2
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming February 2007 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[342] 21 8 No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2008 Recognition of out-of-state union[343] Failed No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2009 Civil union[344] 136 205 No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire February 2010 Marriage[345][346] 109 210 No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming March 2011 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[347] 14 16 31 28 No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 2012 Marriage[348] 116 211 No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming February 2014 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[158] 29 31 No No

Notes:

  • 1 On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges that a fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by the Fourteenth Amendment, and that states must allow same-sex marriage.
  • 2 Subsequently repealed.
  • 3 The bill was allowed to lapse into law.
  • 4 Veto overridden.

Attempts to establish same-sex unions via initiative or statewide referendum

State Intended date Same-sex union Description Outcome
Flag of Maine.svg Maine November 2012 Marriage Initiative to establish same-sex marriage.[349] Yes Yes

Efforts to enable ban amendment

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper House Lower house Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii 1998 Marriage ban permitted Passed Passed Placed on Ballot
November 1998 Referendum (69.18%) Yes Yes
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska 1998 Same-sex marriage 14 6 28 12 Placed on Ballot
November 1998 Referendum (68.1%) Yes Yes
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana February 2004 Same-sex marriage[350] 42 7 No No
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri 2004 Same-sex marriage Passed Passed Placed on Ballot
August 2004 Referendum (70.6%) Yes Yes
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana May/June 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 31 6 64 29 No No
87 11 Placed on Ballot
September 2004 Referendum (77.79%) Yes Yes
Flag of Mississippi (2001–2020).svg Mississippi 2004 Same-sex marriage Passed Passed Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (86.01%) Yes Yes
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia February/March 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 40 14 117 50 No No
122 52 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (76.2%) Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[351] 20 7 58 14 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (65.86%) Yes Yes
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky April 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[352][353] 33 5 85 11 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (74.55%) Yes Yes
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma April 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 26 19 92 4 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (75.58%) Yes Yes
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas January/February 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 28 11 86 37 Placed on Ballot
April 2005 Referendum (69.94%) Yes Yes
Flag of Texas.svg Texas May 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[354] 21 8 101 29 Placed on Ballot
November 2005 Referendum (76.25%) Yes Yes
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama March 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 30 0 85 7 Placed on Ballot
June 2006 Referendum (81.2%) Yes Yes
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions Passed Passed Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (77.97%) Yes Yes
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota February 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 20 14 55 14 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (51.83%) Yes Yes
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin March 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 20 13 68 27 Advanced
February 2006 19 14 62 31 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (59.4%) Yes Yes
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee May 2004 Same-sex marriage 28 1 85 5 Advanced
March 2005 29 3 88 7 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (81.25%) Yes Yes
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho February 2006 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[355] 26 9 53 17 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (63.4%) Yes Yes
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 2006 All types of same-sex unions[356] 28 11 85 12 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (57.06%) Yes Yes
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania June 2006 Same-sex marriage[357] 38 12 136 61 Advanced
2007/2008 No No
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona May/June 2008 Same-sex marriage 14 11 35 25 No No
16 4 Placed on Ballot
November 2008 Referendum (56.2%) Yes Yes
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming February 2009 Same-sex marriage[358] 25 35 No No
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia March 2009 Same-sex marriage[359] 30 67 No No
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana January 2010 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[360] 38 10 No No
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire February 2010 Same-sex marriage[361] 135 201 No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming January 2011 Same-sex marriage[362] 20 10 No No
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa February 2011 Same-sex marriage 62 37 No No
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina September 2011 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[363] 30 16 75 42 Placed on Ballot
May 2012 Referendum (61.04%) Yes Yes
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota May 2011 Same-sex marriage[364] 37 27 70 62 Placed on Ballot
November 2012 Referendum (47.44%) No No
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana March 2011 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[350] 40 10 70 26 No No, Bill was amended
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana February 2014 Same-sex marriage[365][366] 32 17 57 40 Advanced
2015 No No

Efforts to ban same-sex unions by constitutional amendment

The following table shows all popular vote results regarding state constitutional amendments concerning same-sex marriage, and in some cases civil unions and domestic partnerships. The Hawaii amendment is different in that it granted the legislature authority to "reserve marriage to opposite-sex couples" (which the legislature had already done).

State Initiative Ban on Date Yes Yes vote No No vote Total votes Voter turnout Electorate Final
outcome1
Votes Percentage Votes Percentage
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama Amendment 774 Marriage and
civil union
June 6, 2006 697,591 81.2% 161,694 18.8% 859,285 25.73% 3,338,467 Yes Yes
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska Ballot Measure 2 Marriage November 3, 1998 152,965 68.1% 71,631 31.9% 224,596 50.11% 453,332 Yes Yes
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona Proposition 107 Marriage and
civil union
November 7, 2006 721,789 48.2% 775,498 51.8% 1,496,987 38.15% 3,923,786 No No
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona Proposition 102 Marriage November 4, 2008 1,258,355 56.2% 980,753 43.8% 2,239,078 55.33% 2,987,451 Yes Yes
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas Constitutional Amendment 3 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 753,770 74.95% 251,914 25.04% 1,005,684 51.07% 1,969,208 Yes Yes
Flag of California.svg California Proposition 8 Marriage November 4, 2008 7,001,084 52.24% 6,401,482 47.76% 13,743,177 61.73% 22,261,504 Yes Yes2
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado Amendment 43 Marriage November 7, 2006 855,126 55.02% 699,030 44.98% 1,554,156 47.13% 3,297,308 Yes Yes
Flag of Florida.svg Florida Amendment 2 Marriage and
civil union
November 4, 2008 4,890,883 61.92% 3,008,026 38.08% 8,456,329 66.65% 12,687,407 Yes Yes
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 2,454,930 76.2% 768,716 23.8% 3,223,646 54.84% 5,878,186 Yes Yes
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii Constitutional Amendment 2 Marriage ban
permitted
November 3, 1998 285,384 69.18% 117,827 28.56% 403,211 Yes Yes3
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho Amendment 2 Marriage and
civil union
November 7, 2006 282,386 63.4% 163,384 36.6% 445,770 49.04% 908,925 Yes Yes
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas Proposed amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
April 5, 2005 417,675 69.94% 179,432 30.06% 597,107 Yes Yes
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 1,222,125 74.55% 417,097 25.45% 1,639,222 53.6% 3,057,741 Yes Yes
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
September 18, 2004 619,908 77.79% 177,067 22.21% 796,975 25.04% 3,182,762 Yes Yes
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan State Proposal - 04-2 All types of same-sex unions4 November 2, 2004 2,698,077 58.63% 1,904,319 41.37% 4,602,396 63.36% 7,263,024 Yes Yes
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota Amendment 1 Marriage November 6, 2012 1,399,916 47.44% 1,550,864 52.56% 2,950,780 76.11% 3,876,752 No No
Flag of Mississippi (2001–2020).svg Mississippi Amendment 1 Marriage November 2, 2004 957,104 86.01% 155,648 13.99% 1,112,752 53.78% 2,068,766 Yes Yes
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2 Marriage August 3, 2004 1,055,771 70.6% 439,529 29.4% 1,495,300 35.76% 4,180,960 Yes Yes
Flag of Montana.svg Montana Initiative 96 Marriage November 2, 2004 295,070 66.55% 148,263 33.45% 443,333 63.41% 699,114 Yes Yes
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska Initiative Measure 416 All types of same-sex unions November 7, 2000 450,07 70.36% 189,555 29.64% 639,628 52.24% 1,224,178 Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada Question 2 Marriage November 7, 2000 412,688 69.62% 180,077 30.38% 592,765 44.03% 1,346,116 Yes Yes
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada Question 2 Marriage November 7, 2002 337,197 67.20% 164,573 32.80% 501,770 42.61% 1,391,100 Yes Yes
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
May 8, 2012 1,317,178 61.04% 840,802 38.96% 2,157,980 34.66% 6,296,759 Yes Yes
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota Constitutional Measure 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 223,572 73.23% 81,716 26.77% 305,288 63.24% 482,722 Yes Yes
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio State Issue 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 3,329,335 61.71% 2,065,462 38.29% 5,394,797 64.01% 8,427,696 Yes Yes
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma State Question 711 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 1,075,216 75.58% 347,303 24.42% 1,422,519 56.65% 2,510,823 Yes Yes
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon Measure 36 Marriage November 2, 2004 1,028,546 56.63% 787,556 43.37% 1,816,102 71.19% 2,550,887 Yes Yes
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 7, 2006 829,360 77.97% 234,316 22.03% 1,063,676 33.74% 3,152,046 Yes Yes
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota Amendment C All types of same-sex unions November 7, 2006 172,305 51.83% 160,152 48.17% 332,457 57.26% 580,592 Yes Yes
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee Amendment 1 Marriage November 7, 2006 1,419,434 81.3% 327,536 18.7% 1,746,970 39.4% 4,433,921 Yes Yes
Flag of Texas.svg Texas Proposition 2 Marriage and
civil union
November 8, 2005 1,723,782 76.25% 536,913 23.74% 2,260,695 17.97% 12,577,545 Yes Yes
Flag of Utah.svg Utah Constitutional Amendment 3 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 593,297 65.86% 307,488 34.14% 900,785 57.21% 1,574,463 Yes Yes5
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia Marshall-Newman Amendment All types of same-sex unions November 7, 2006 1,328,537 57.06% 999,687 42.94% 2,328,224 43.23% 5,385,522 Yes Yes
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin Referendum 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 7, 2006 1,264,310 59.4% 862,924 40.6% 2,127,234 52.33% 4,064,432 Yes Yes

Notes:

  • 1 On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges that a fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by the Fourteenth Amendment, and that states must allow same-sex marriage.
  • 2 On June 26, 2013, the United States Supreme Court ruled that supporters of the measure did not have standing in federal court to defend the August 2010 ruling by Northern District of California's Chief Judge Vaughn Walker that the amendment was unconstitutional under both the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment, effectively killing the ballot initiative.
  • 3 Does not explicitly define marriage, but allows the legislature to define marriage.
  • 4 On June 28, 2013, U.S. District Judge David M. Lawson issued a preliminary injunction blocking the state from enforcing its law banning local governments and school districts from offering health benefits to their employees' domestic partners.[367][368]
  • 5 On December 20, 2013, Judge Robert J. Shelby of Federal District Court for the District of Utah, issued a 53-page ruling that said Utah's law, which was passed by voters in 2004, violated the US Constitutional rights of gay and lesbian couples to due process and equal protection under the 14th Amendment.[369]

Proposed attempts to constitutionally block same-sex unions

State 2000s 2010s 2014 Details
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware 2009 A proposed constitutional amendment, Senate Bill 27, to ban same-sex marriage failed.[370] Failed Failed
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana 2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2014 On February 15, 2011, the Indiana House approved a ban on civil unions and marriage (70-26). The bill passed the Indiana Senate by a 40-10 vote. According to state law, the bill must now be approved by the next, separately elected legislature before voters will see the measure on the 2014 ballot.[371] On January 27, 2014, the Indiana House voted 52-43 to remove the ban on civil unions from the proposed measure.[372] On January 28, 2014, the Indiana House voted 57-40 in favor of the amended measure.[373] On February 17, 2014, the Indiana Senate voted 32-17 approving the House-amended version of the ban on gay marriage. The measure will now need to be approved by the next, separately elected legislature before voters are allowed to decide its fate in 2016.[374] Failed Failed
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa 2004
2005
2010
2011
After the Iowa Supreme Court made same-sex marriage legal in 2009, a backlash quickly developed that resulted in three of the justices losing their seats in the 2010 election. Additionally, Republicans took control of the House and fell one seat short of taking over the Senate. For a proposed constitutional amendment to come before Iowa voters, it has to be approved in exactly the same form by two consecutive general assemblies.[375] Failed Failed
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota 2004
2005
2006
2007
2009
2011 A bill was sponsored in 2009 but failed to be brought up for a vote. An amendment was introduced again in 2011. The House and Senate bills passed.[376][377] Both are referred to other area.[clarification needed] The bill would have been approved by majority by both the Senate and house by May 23, 2011.[clarification needed] On May 11, 2011, the Senate passed the bill 38-27.[378] On May 22, 2011, an amendment was passed in the house by a vote of 70-62, and was placed on the ballot in the November 2012 election.[379] Failed Failed
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire 2006
2007
2010 On February 17, 2010, a proposed constitutional amendment failed in the house by a 201-135 margin.[380][381] Constitutional amendments in New Hampshire require two-thirds approval from voters. Failed Failed
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 2006
2007
2008
2010 Bills to place an amendment on the ballot have all failed in the House or Senate Judiciary Committee. Failed Failed
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico 2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2013
2014 A joint resolution was prefiled in the New Mexico legislature for the 2014 session.[382] The resolution would define marriage as one man and one woman for the state of New Mexico.[383] Failed Failed
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania 2006
2008
2009
2010
2011
2013
A joint resolution was introduced in the house of representatives with record low sponsorship on May 8, 2013. The bill would ban same-sex marriages and civil unions. Pennsylvania would become the first northeastern state with a marriage amendment. According to state law, the amendment must receive a majority vote from both chambers of the legislature in two consecutive sessions before voters are allowed to decide its fate. The soonest voters could see the measure is in 2015.[384][385] Failed Failed
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia 2009 2010
2011
West Virginia senators proposed a constitutional amendment for the 2010 ballot that would have defined marriage as "a union between and man and a woman". The amendment was defeated.[386][387] Another proposition was introduced in January 2011[388] but failed to advance. Failed Failed
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming 2009 2011 In 2009, the house of representatives considered an amendment to the state constitution, House Joint Resolution 17 (also known as the "Defense of Marriage" resolution), defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman. The measure was defeated in the house on February 6, with 35 votes against and 25 in favor. On January 27, 2011, the Senate approved an amendment,[389] but it died in the house.[390] Failed Failed

Efforts to ban same-sex unions by statute

The following consists of votes by statutory initiatives that ban same-sex marriage and/or civil unions and domestic partnerships:

State Date Yes Yes vote No No vote Description Final outcome
Flag of California.svg California March 2000 61% (4,618,673) 39% (2,909,370) Proposition 22. Amend the Family Code to say: Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California.[391]1 Yes Yes2 3

Notes:

  • 1 There is a debate as to whether the adoption of Prop 22 only prohibited California from recognizing same-sex marriages performed in other states.
  • 2 In March 2005, Judge Richard Kramer ruled there appeared to be no rational state compelling interest in limiting marriage to heterosexual couples. His ruling was appealed to the California Court of Appeal for the 1st District, which upheld Proposition 22 on October 5, 2006. The Supreme Court of California ruled on May 15, 2008, that Proposition 22 is unconstitutional and it was struck down by the state's highest court.
  • 3 Subsequently repealed by state legislature.

Lawsuits seeking to overturn statutory bans

The following lists cases seeking to overturn marriage bans:

State Case Date Vote for Vote against Description Restrictions unconstitutional? Final outcome
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota Richard John Baker v. Gerald R. Nelson October 15, 1971 0 7 Minnesota Supreme Court ruled that Minnesota's marriage statute applied only to opposite-sex couples.[392] The case was appealed to the United States Supreme Court, but dismissed on October 10, 1972.[393] No No No No
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky Jones v. Callahan November 9, 1973 0 7 Kentucky Court of Appeals ruled that Kentucky's marriage statute applied only to opposite-sex couples.[394] No No No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington Singer v. Hara October 1974 Failed Washington Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of same-sex couple who were denied a marriage license by their county clerk. Washington Court of Appeals's decision stating that state marriage statutes only applied to opposite-sex couples upheld.[395] No No No No
Flag of the District of Columbia.svg District of Columbia Dean v. District of Columbia' January 1995 0 9 District of Columbia Court of Appeals ruled that District's marriage statute applied only to opposite-sex couples.[396][397] No No No No
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii Baehr v. Miike December 9, 1999 0 5 Hawaii Supreme Court ruled on May 5, 1993, in a 3 in favor to 1 against decision, that state must provide a compelling interest to restricting marriage to opposite-sex couples. Remanded case to lower courts for trial on the subject. On December 3, 1996, Judge Chang ruled that the state had not established any compelling interest in denying same-sex couples the ability to marry and that, even if it had, it failed to prove that the Hawaii statute was narrowly tailored to avoid unnecessary abridgement of constitutional rights. He enjoined the state from refusing to issue marriage licenses to otherwise-qualified same-sex couples.[398] The following day Chang stayed his ruling, acknowledging the "legally untenable" position couples would be in should the Supreme Court reverse him on appeal.[399] Hawaii Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs' arguments were moot in light of 1998 state constitutional amendment.[400] No No No No
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont Baker v. Vermont December 20, 1999 5 0 Vermont Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriage or something similar must be implemented in 100 days.[401] Yes Yes Yes Legalized civil unions in Vermont by Vermont General Assembly
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska Brause v. Alaska Dept of Health & Social Services April 17, 2001 0 5 Alaska Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs' arguments were moot in light of 1998 state constitutional amendment.[402] No No No No
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts Goodridge v. Department of Public Health November 18, 2003 4 3 Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court rules that same-sex marriages must be legal in 180 days.[403] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in Massachusetts on May 17, 2004
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona Harold Donald Standhardt and Tod Alan Keltner v. State of Arizona May 25, 2004 Failed Arizona Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of a unanimous Arizona Appellate Court ruling upholding statutory marriage ban.[404][405] No No No No
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana Forum for Equality v McKeithen January 19, 2005 0 7 District Judge William Morvant of Baton Rouge struck down the constitutional amendment on the grounds that it violated a provision of the state constitution requiring that an amendment cover only one subject. The Louisiana Supreme Court, however, upheld the constitutional amendment.[406] No No No No
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon Mary Li and Rebecca Kennedy et al. v. State of Oregon et al. April 2005 0 7 Oregon Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs' arguments were moot in light of 2004 state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage.[407] No No No No
Flag of New York.svg New York Hernandez v. Robles July 6, 2006 2 4 New York Court of Appeals upheld New York's marriage statute did not allow same-sex marriage, and that there is no constitutional right to same-sex marriage.[408] No No No No
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia Perdue v. O'Kelley July 7, 2006 0 7 On May 16, 2006, Constance C. Russell of Fulton County Superior Court struck down the constitutional amendment on the grounds that it violated a provision of the state constitution requiring that an amendment cover only one subject. The Georgia Supreme Court, however, upheld the constitutional amendment.[409] No No No No
Flag of Washington.svg Washington Andersen v. King County July 26, 2006 4 5 Washington Supreme Court upholds Washington's statute banning same-sex marriage.[410] No No No No
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey Lewis v. Harris October 25, 2006 7 0 New Jersey Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriage or something similar must be implemented in 100 days.[411] Yes Yes Yes Legalized civil unions in New Jersey by New Jersey General Assembly
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland Conaway v. Deane & Polyak September 2007 3 4 Maryland Court of Appeals upholds Maryland's statute banning same-sex marriage.[412] No No No No
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan Pride at Work v. Granholm May 7, 2008 5 2 Michigan Supreme Court ruled that Michigan's constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage and civil unions also applies to domestic partner benefits.[413][414] No No No Constitution of Michigan prohibits domestic partner benefits for same-sex couples
Flag of California.svg California In re Marriage Cases May 15, 2008 4 3 California Supreme Court overturns Proposition 22 and rules that in 30 days, same-sex marriages must be legal.[415] Yes Yes Yes Same-sex marriage licenses issued in California from June 17, 2008 to November 5, 2008
No On November 5, 2008, Proposition 8 goes into effect banning same-sex marriage in the Constitution of California
Yes
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public Health October 10, 2008 4 3 Connecticut Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriages must be legal in 30 days.[416] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in Connecticut on November 12, 2008
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa Varnum v. Brien April 2009 7 0 Iowa Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriages must be legal in 27 days.[417] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in Iowa on April 27, 2009
Flag of California.svg California Strauss v. Horton May 26, 2009 1 6 California Supreme Court upholds Proposition 8; however, same-sex marriages performed before November 5, 2008, are also upheld.[418] No No No California Supreme Court upholds Proposition 8; however, same-sex marriages performed before November 5, 2008, are also upheld.
Yes
Flag of New York.svg New York Lewis v. New York State Department of Civil Service November 2009 3 2 The case challenging the recognition of same-sex marriages in the state of New York was heard by New York Court of Appeals and upheld the rights that came with the recognition of same-sex marriages.[419] Yes Recognition upheld Yes Continuing the recognition of same-sex marriages abroad.
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin McConkey v. Van Hollen June 30, 2010 0 7 Wisconsin Supreme Court upholds constitutional amendment.[420] No No No No
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming Christiansen v. Christiansen June 2011 Allowed Wyoming Supreme Court allows two Wyoming residents to dissolve a legal relationship created under the laws of Canada.[421] Yes Yes Yes Couple can divorce in Wyoming
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland McConkey v. Van Hollen May 18, 2012 7 0 Maryland Court of Appeals upholds Maryland's recognition of out-of-state same-sex marriages.[422] Yes Recognition upheld Yes Continuing the recognition of same-sex marriages abroad.
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin Appling v. Doyle July 31, 2014 7 0 On November 4, 2009, Wisconsin Supreme Court declined to hear the challenge to Wisconsin's domestic partnership.[423] On June 20, 2011, the Circuit court Judge Dan Moeser ruled that the domestic partnership registry does not violate the state constitution, finding that the state "does not recognize domestic partnership in a way that even remotely resembles how the state recognizes marriage".[424] On December 21, 2012, District 4 Court of Appeals affirms Judge Moeser's decision in a unanimous ruling.[425] On July 31, 2014, the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the domestic partnership law does not violate the state's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage.[426] Yes Recognition upheld Yes Wisconsin's domestic partnership law is upheld.
Flag of Montana.svg Montana Donaldson and Guggenheim v. State of Montana December 2012 3 4 Montana Supreme Court affirmed a lower court's dismissal of this case because the plaintiffs had not identified specific state statutes in their complaint. They did not seek the right to marry, but equal treatment for same-sex couples with respect to inheritance rights, health care decisions, and parenting. The Court invited the plaintiffs to file an amended complaint citing specific statutes,[427] which the plaintiffs, did on April 16, 2013.[428] No No Pending (Lewis and Clark County District Court)
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico Griego v. Oliver December 19, 2013 5 0 On 21 March 2013 ACLU filed a lawsuit in the Albuquerque District court on behalf of two New Mexico couples who are seeking the right to marry. On 19 December 2013 New Mexico's Supreme Court declared that denying marriage to same-sex couples is unconstitutional in the state.[429] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in New Mexico on December 19, 2013
Flag of Texas.svg Texas In Re Marriage of J.B. and H.B. June 19, 2015 n/a n/a County judge ruled statutory and constitutional ban on same-sex marriage in violation of the US constitution; appealed to 5th Texas Court of Appeals. The court says Texas's same-sex marriage ban is constitutional.[430] The Fifth Circuit denied en banc review. J.B. sought review from the Texas Supreme Court in February 2011 and that court requested briefs in October.[431] On July 3, 2013, the Texas Supreme Court sua sponte ordered supplemental merits briefing in light of United States v. Windsor.[432] Case dismissed on June 19, 2015 because a Petitioner died.
Flag of Texas.svg Texas Texas v. Naylor June 19, 2015 5 3 On January 7, 2011, the Third Court of Appeals in Austin in the case of State of Texas v. Angelique S. Naylor and Sabina Daly rejected, on procedural grounds, the Texas attorney general's appeal of a divorce granted by a lower court to a same-sex couple married in Massachusetts.[433][434] The appeal was still pending in December 2012.[435] Third Court of Appeals upheld in a 5-3 decision on June 19, 2015. The Court ruled that the Texas government had no standing to intervene in the divorce.

See also

References

  1. ^ 1 U.S.C. § 7
  2. ^ 28 U.S.C. § 1738C
  3. ^ Foley, Elise (March 16, 2011). "Democrats Aim For DOMA Repeal". Huffington Post.
  4. ^ Petition for Certiorari (No 12-307). Retrieved December 8, 2012
  5. ^ Liptak, Adam (June 26, 2013). "Supreme Court Bolsters Gay Marriage With Two Major Rulings". New York Times. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  6. ^ "Weber Introduces "State Marriage Defense Act of 2014"". Press Releases. US House of Representatives. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  7. ^ Bradley, Gerard V. (January 10, 2014). "The State Marriage Defense Act, January 10, 2014". Witherspoon Institute. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  8. ^ Liptak, Adam (June 26, 2015). "Supreme Court Ruling Makes Same-Sex Marriage a Right Nationwide". New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  9. ^ D.C. Dopmestic Partnership Program
  10. ^ Ingram, Carl (August 24, 1994). "Senate OKs Bill on Rights for Unwed Couples". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  11. ^ "Wilson: no to domestic partnership bill". The Sacramento Bee. September 12, 1994. p. A1. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  12. ^ "Gay marriages get thumps up in state senate". The Deseret News. March 6, 1996. p. A2. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  13. ^ Civil Unions
  14. ^ California Assembly Bill 1059, 1998
  15. ^ California Senate Bill 75, 1999
  16. ^ California Assembly Bill 26, 1999
  17. ^ Vermont House Bill 847, 2000
  18. ^ CHAPTER 110/2001
  19. ^ California Senate Bill 1049, 2001
  20. ^ California Assembly Bill 25, 2001
  21. ^ S07685
  22. ^ S07716
  23. ^ California Senate Bill 1575, 2002
  24. ^ California Assembly Bill 2216, 2002
  25. ^ D.C. Law 15-17. Health-Care Decisions Act of 2003
  26. ^ California Assembly Bill 205, 2003
  27. ^ New Jersey Domestic Partnership Act
  28. ^ Summary of LD 1579
  29. ^ D.C. Law 15-176. Deed Recordation Tax and Related Amendments Amendment Act of 2004
  30. ^ California Assembly Bill 2208, 2004
  31. ^ A09872
  32. ^ D.C. Law 15-307. Department of Motor Vehicles Reform Amendment Act of 2004
  33. ^ D.C. Law 15-309. Domestic Partnership Protection Amendment Act of 2004
  34. ^ House passes bill; reactions; bill signed into law
  35. ^ Ehrlich Vetoes Bill Extending Rights to Gay Couples
  36. ^ California Assembly Bill 19, 2005
  37. ^ S 0146
  38. ^ 2005 Bill Status: Senate Bills 1-299
  39. ^ S 1209
  40. ^ 2005 Bill Status: Senate Bills 1200 - 1237
  41. ^ California Assembly Bill 849, 2005
  42. ^ California Senate Bill 565, 2005
  43. ^ California Senate Bill 973, 2005
  44. ^ D.C. Law 16-59. DOMESTIC PARTNER HEALTH CARE BENEFITS TAX EXEMPTION ACT OF 2005
  45. ^ P.L. 2005, CHAPTER 331
  46. ^ D.C. Law 16-79. Domestic Partnership Equality Amendment Act of 2006
  47. ^ S01924
  48. ^ Summary of LD 1842
  49. ^ A02224
  50. ^ A02839
  51. ^ Chapter 157/2006 -- H 7679
  52. ^ a b 2006 Bill Status: House Bills 7600 - 7899
  53. ^ Chapter 189/2006 -- H 7804
  54. ^ Chapter 316/2006 -- S 2713
  55. ^ a b 2006 Bill Status: Senate Bills 2601 - 2900
  56. ^ Chapter 631/2006 -- S 2717
  57. ^ Chapter 645/2006 -- S 2229
  58. ^ 2006 Bill Status: Senate Bills 2001 - 2300
  59. ^ California Senate Bill 1827, 2006
  60. ^ California Assembly Bill 2051, 2006
  61. ^ Cloyd, Wendy (December 15, 2006). "New Jersey Legislature Adopts Civil Unions". Citizen Link. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  62. ^ D.C. Law 16-292. Domestic Partnerships Joint Filing Act of 2006
  63. ^ Bill status of HB905
  64. ^ SB 5336 - 2007-08
  65. ^ Sklar, Roberta (May 2, 2007). "Task Force hails Oregon Senate passage of domestic partnership legislation covering same-sex couples". The Task Force. Archived from the original on November 4, 2009. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  66. ^ Summary of LD 663
  67. ^ Bill status of HB437
  68. ^ Summary of LD 375
  69. ^ Summary of LD 1862
  70. ^ "New York governor to propose legalizing same-sex marriage". CNN. April 14, 2009. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  71. ^ Chapter 476/2007 -- S 729
  72. ^ a b 2007 Bill Status: Senate Bills 600 - 899
  73. ^ California Assembly Bill 43, 2007
  74. ^ California Assembly Bill 102, 2007
  75. ^ Chapter 510/2007 -- S 0619
  76. ^ Docket of SB240
  77. ^ S02369
  78. ^ Sklar, Roberta (February 21, 2008). "Task Force Action Fund denounces New Mexico Senate's rejection of comprehensive domestic partnership bill". The Task Force. Archived from the original on November 6, 2009. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  79. ^ Luna, Brad (March 13, 2008). "WA domestic partnership expansion bill signed into law". Free Press. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  80. ^ HB 3104 - 2007-08
  81. ^ Summary of LD 1953
  82. ^ House Bill 746
  83. ^ "Senate Bill 566".
  84. ^ Senate Bill 597
  85. ^ Jantzen, M. V. (May 16, 2008). "D.C. Council Passes Domestic Partner Law Expansion". DCist. Archived from the original on February 19, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  86. ^ Terrell, Steven (February 26, 2009). "Domestic partnership bill fails in Senate". Santa Fe New Mexican. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  87. ^ Abel, David (April 8, 2009). "Vermont legalizes same-sex marriage". The Boston Globe. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  88. ^ Ritter signs bill that will help gay couples
  89. ^ Matthews, Chase (April 23, 2009). "Connecticut Gov. signs gay marriage into law". Chicago Pride. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  90. ^ Goodnough, Abby (May 5, 2009). "Gay Marriage Advances in Maine". New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  91. ^ Craig, Tim (May 5, 2009). "Uproar in D.C. as Same-Sex Marriage Gains". Washington Post. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  92. ^ D.C. Law 18-9. Jury and Marriage Amendment Act of 2009
  93. ^ "Washington Expands Domestic Partnerships, Offers Almost-Marriage". Family Fairness. April 16, 2009. Archived from the original on February 12, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  94. ^ D.C. Law 18-33. Domestic Partnership Judicial Determination of Parentage Amendment Act of 2009
  95. ^ Summary of LD 982
  96. ^ "Nevada legalizing domestic partnerships". CNN. May 31, 2009. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  97. ^ SB283
  98. ^ Love, Norma (June 3, 2009). "Gay Marriage: New Hampshire Makes Same-Sex Marriage Legal". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  99. ^ Bill status of HB 2839
  100. ^ A00904 A00904
  101. ^ Schwarzenegger signs Milk Day, marriage recognition into law
  102. ^ Honan, Edith (December 2, 2009). "NY Senate votes down gay marriage bill 38-24". Reuters.
  103. ^ "Washington, D.C. Mayor Signs Law Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage". RTTNews. December 18, 2009.
  104. ^ Chapter 369/2009 -- S 0195
  105. ^ 2009 Bill Status: Senate Bills 1-299
  106. ^ Chapter 385/2009 -- H 5294
  107. ^ 2009 Bill Status: House Bills 5000-5299
  108. ^ Senate Bill 7773
  109. ^ S07773
  110. ^ "Gay marriage bill up for vote in NJ next week". Google. Associated Press. December 3, 2009.
  111. ^ A02368
  112. ^ A07729
  113. ^ Assembly Bill 7729
  114. ^ A04089
  115. ^ Assembly Bill 4089
  116. ^ Citing Marriage, Tim Pawlenty Rejects Gay Rights Bill
  117. ^ Hawaii Senate passes civil-unions bill with veto-proof majority, 18-7[permanent dead link]
  118. ^ A02563 A02563
  119. ^ Bill 2563
  120. ^ California Assembly Bill 2055, 2010
  121. ^ Illinois House passes civil unions legislation in historic vote
  122. ^ Illinois Senate OK's Civil Unions For Gay & Lesbian Couples
  123. ^ Illinois Governor Signs Historic Law, Extends a Measure of Fairness to All Couples[permanent dead link]
  124. ^ Hawaii State Legislature 2011 Regular Session SB232 SD1
  125. ^ Bill status of HB569
  126. ^ Senate approves gay marriage; House passage not assured
  127. ^ Maryland gay marriage bill dies with no final vote
  128. ^ Colorado Senate Passes Civil Unions Bill
  129. ^ House panel kills Colorado civil unions bill on 6-5 party-line vote
  130. ^ Concerning reciprocity and statutory construction with regard to domestic partnerships
  131. ^ Assembly Bill 464
  132. ^ Clarifying and expanding the rights and obligations of state registered domestic partners and other couples related to parentage
  133. ^ Senate Bill 30
  134. ^ Senate Bill 391
  135. ^ New York Allows Same-Sex Marriage, Becoming Largest State to Pass Law
  136. ^ Breaking News: House Passes Controversial Civil Unions Bill
  137. ^ California Senate Bill 117, 2011
  138. ^ California Senate Bill 651, 2011
  139. ^ California Senate Bill 757, 2011
  140. ^ "Washington becomes seventh state to recognize same-sex marriages". Thegavoice.com. February 13, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  141. ^ Same-Sex Marriage On New Jersey Senate Agenda
  142. ^ Gay-marriage battle heating up in several states, including Maine
  143. ^ A03592
  144. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved September 11, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  145. ^ Senate Bill 1599
  146. ^ Bill status of HB 168
  147. ^ Votes for SB13-011
  148. ^ "R.I. Senate committee to consider gay marriage, referendum bills next Thursday". Metro Weekly. March 15, 2013. Archived from the original on March 21, 2013.
  149. ^ House Bill 5015 and Senate Bill 38.
  150. ^ House Bill 75
  151. ^ Bill Status for HF 1054.
  152. ^ Assembly Bill 99
  153. ^ Bill Status of SB1
  154. ^ Bill Status of SB10
  155. ^ Long, Ray; Rafael Guerrero (February 14, 2013). "Illinois Senate approves gay marriage - chicagotribune.com". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  156. ^ A07100
  157. ^ Assembly Bill 7100
  158. ^ a b Wyoming House defeats bill aimed at legalizing same-sex marriages
  159. ^ A04024
  160. ^ Assembly Bill 4024
  161. ^ "Calif. Senate advances bill to remove 'man and woman' from marriage laws". LGBTQ Nation. May 1, 2014.
  162. ^ "Legislation updates California marriage laws". The Sacramento Bee. June 30, 2014. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
  163. ^ "New law updates state code to use gender-neutral marriage terms". Los Angeles Times. July 7, 2014.
  164. ^ SB 1211 Gender-specific references; revisions to certain terms in the Code of Virginia
  165. ^ Rare win for LGBTQ Virginians as two equality bills pass full Senate vote
  166. ^ Va. Delegate speaks out on discrimination as last two LGBT bills are killed
  167. ^ Senate Bill 269
  168. ^ Senate Bill 279
  169. ^ SB 279
  170. ^ Senate Bill 307
  171. ^ Senate Bill 406
  172. ^ Senate Bill 866
  173. ^ Actions for LD 1017
  174. ^ House Bill 2478
  175. ^ Guam passes marriage equality and employment nondiscrimination acts
  176. ^ Guam lawmakers pass LGBT bills
  177. ^ passes Marriage Equality Act
  178. ^ Assembly Bill 7645
  179. ^ A07645
  180. ^ D.C. Law 21-105. Domestic Partnership Termination Recognition Amendment Act of 2015
  181. ^ "Legislature reinforces same-sex marriage". Statesman Journal. February 25, 2016.
  182. ^ House Bill 4127
  183. ^ A05476
  184. ^ Assembly Bill 5476
  185. ^ A03694
  186. ^ Senate Bill 150
  187. ^ Governor signs raft of bills
  188. ^ House Bill 1061
  189. ^ SB-1005 Marriage
  190. ^ SB 1005: Modernizing Code Language to Reflect Marriage Equality
  191. ^ Bill Actions for SB 2043
  192. ^ North Dakota Rejects Changes to Reflect Gay Marriage Ruling Archived January 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  193. ^ House Bill 412
  194. ^ HB 412
  195. ^ House Bill 150
  196. ^ Senate Bill 147
  197. ^ Senate Bill 237
  198. ^ House Bill 1104
  199. ^ AB229
  200. ^ Senate Bill 79
  201. ^ Senate Bill 4407
  202. ^ Senate Bill 1238
  203. ^ House Bill 229
  204. ^ Summary of LD 1616
  205. ^ Senate Bill 276
  206. ^ House Bill 201
  207. ^ A03387
  208. ^ Senate Bill 27
  209. ^ Senate Bill 221
  210. ^ Senate Bill 54
  211. ^ House Bill 293
  212. ^ A03920
  213. ^ House Bill 4385
  214. ^ Senate Bill 482
  215. ^ Senate Bill 5858
  216. ^ Docket of HB1587
  217. ^ Senate Bill 366
  218. ^ Legislature Bill 111
  219. ^ House Bill 419
  220. ^ HB 1979 Assisted conception; amends statute to provide gender-neutral terminology, etc.
  221. ^ House Bill 6
  222. ^ Legislature Bill 127
  223. ^ House Bill 234
  224. ^ House Bill 422
  225. ^ SB 503
  226. ^ Senate Bill 697
  227. ^ House Bill 519
  228. ^ House Bill 2468
  229. ^ Legislature Bill 427
  230. ^ Legislature Bill 533
  231. ^ HF 5
  232. ^ House Bill 5
  233. ^ Senate Bill 789
  234. ^ An Act To Update the Laws Regarding Death and Marriage Records
  235. ^ Senate Bill 94
  236. ^ Senate Bill 300
  237. ^ A02566
  238. ^ Assembly Bill 2566
  239. ^ House Bill 686
  240. ^ House Bill 158
  241. ^ Legislature Bill 387
  242. ^ House Bill 146
  243. ^ HB 1490
  244. ^ SB 17
  245. ^ SB 247
  246. ^ House Bill 234
  247. ^ Senate Bill 65
  248. ^ HB 1580
  249. ^ Senate Bill 7506
  250. ^ Gestational Surrogacy Legalized in New York State
  251. ^ HB 623
  252. ^ S07168
  253. ^ Senate Bill 7168
  254. ^ Puerto Rico approves new civil code, sparking fears over LGBT+ rights
  255. ^ Wanda Vázquez convirtió en ley el Código Civil
  256. ^ Senate Bill 595
  257. ^ Docket of HB1162
  258. ^ AJR2
  259. ^ Assembly Joint Resolution 2 of the 79th (2017) Session
  260. ^ House Bill 979
  261. ^ Senate Bill 2136
  262. ^ Bill S.77
  263. ^ Bill H.139
  264. ^ Assembly Bill 3229
  265. ^ "Maryland". Marriage-law.laws.com. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  266. ^ HB 103, 63rd Regular Session
  267. ^ Texas’ First Anti-Marriage Law
  268. ^ SAME-SEX MARRIAGE LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES (Current as of December 31, 2013) Archived April 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  269. ^ "Legal Marriage Court Cases". Partners Task Force for Gay and Lesbian Couples. July 10, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
  270. ^ "Ban on gay marriage passes". Fredericksburg.com. November 7, 2006. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  271. ^ Utah will ask Supreme Court to stop gay marriage during appeal
  272. ^ Same-Sex Marriages Banned by Fla. House
  273. ^ Bills OK'd Barring Homosexual marriage, adoption
  274. ^ Askew signs bill to ban gay marriage
  275. ^ Baim, Tracy (2010). Obama and the Gays: A Political Marriage. Create Space. p. 8.
  276. ^ Homosexual Marriage Ban Signed
  277. ^ "Overview of Gay Marriage". Lgbt-vmmlegal.com. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
  278. ^ This Is Where Marriage Equality Stands on Its 10th Birthday
  279. ^ New Hampshire
  280. ^ DOMESTIC RELATIONS CHAPTER 457 MARRIAGES
  281. ^ New Hampshire Senate Bill 557, 1994
  282. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  283. ^ Hawaii bans same-sex marriages
  284. ^ Utah may ignore gay unions
  285. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n State Laws Prohibiting Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships
  286. ^ a b c d e f g h i j DEFINITION OR DISCRIMINATION? STATE MARRIAGE RECOGNITION STATUTES IN THE "SAME-SEX MARRIAGE" DEBATE
  287. ^ House Bill 1143
  288. ^ UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF IDAHO
  289. ^ Batt signs law banning recognition of same-sex marriage
  290. ^ "The Union Democrat - Google News Archive Search".
  291. ^ Lawmakers say no to same-sex marriages
  292. ^ Georgia House of Representatives - 1995/1996 Sessions
  293. ^ BILL STATUS OVERVIEW SB1038
  294. ^ Alaska Bars Gay Marriage, Congress To Debate Issue
  295. ^ Chapter 25.05. ALASKA MARRIAGE CODE Article 01 REQUIREMENTS FOR MARRIAGE Sec. 25.05.013. Same-sex marriages
  296. ^ Same-sex marriage ban OK'd
  297. ^ Governor signs bill prohibiting same-sex marriage
  298. ^ Senators support bill banning gay marriages
  299. ^ Governor signs ban on same-sex unions
  300. ^ a b House OK's ban on gay marriages
  301. ^ a b State Senate OK's gay marriage, sends bill to Engler
  302. ^ Governor signs bill against gay unions
  303. ^ The Bill
  304. ^ North Carolina SB1487
  305. ^ Senate Bill 1487 / S.L. 1995-588 (= H1452) S1
  306. ^ Gay marriage ban becomes law State of Missouri will recognize only male-female unions
  307. ^ Setback for same-sex marriage ban Lieutenant governor's tie-breaking vote dooms measure
  308. ^ State Senate votes to ban homosexual marriages in PA
  309. ^ Legislature passes same-sex marriage ban, Gov. Ridge says he will sign the measure
  310. ^ a b Mississippi joins ban on same-sex unions
  311. ^ HB1004 - AN ACT TO PROVIDE THAT MARRIAGE SHALL ONLY BE BETWEEN A MAN AND WOMAN; AND TO REFUSE TO RECOGNIZE FOREIGN MARRIAGES BETWEEN PERSONS OF THE SAME SEX.
  312. ^ PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO SENATE BILL NO. 2230
  313. ^ SRC-AAA S.B. 334 75(R) BILL ANALYSIS
  314. ^ Locke's veto of gay marriage ban stands
  315. ^ HB 1589 Same sex marriages.
  316. ^ "Gay-marriage ban called irrelevant". Boston Globe. April 1, 1997.
  317. ^ . May 14, 1997 http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=FW&s_site=fortwayne&p_multi=FW&p_theme=realcities&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EB6CDA4BA6FCDEF&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  318. ^ HB 1265 Passes Indiana House & Senate
  319. ^ HOUSE JOURNAL ADDENDUM COMMUNICATIONS AND PETITIONS OFFICE OF THE SPEAKER
  320. ^ Chiles lets gay marriage ban stand
  321. ^ Resources on Minnesota Issues Same-Sex Marriage in Minnesota
  322. ^ Gay marriage ban vetoed
  323. ^ "Washington Bans Gay Marriage". Chicago Tribune. February 8, 1998.
  324. ^ Veto Vote
  325. ^ Kentucky 1998 Regular Session; HB13
  326. ^ "The Tuscaloosa News - Google News Archive Search".
  327. ^ Puerto Rico House Bill 1013, 1999
  328. ^ HB1450
  329. ^ West Virginia Legislature passes same-sex marriage ban
  330. ^ New Hampshire House Bill 1293, 2000
  331. ^ Governor signs gay-marriage ban among flock of other bills
  332. ^ New Hampshire House Bill 454, 2001
  333. ^ Same-sex marriage ban
  334. ^ American Samoa Senate rejects bill outlawing same sex marriages
  335. ^ New Hampshire House Bill 553, 2003
  336. ^ Perry Signs 'Defense of Marriage
  337. ^ "Doyle's Veto of Marriage Bill Stands, Assembly Fails by One Vote to Override It". November 14, 2003.
  338. ^ [1] Same-Sex Marriage Assembly/Senate Votes (WI)
  339. ^ Bill status of HB172 Archived September 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  340. ^ HB 751 Marriage; affirmation.
  341. ^ New Hampshire Senate Bill 427, 2004
  342. ^ S.F. No. 0013 Same sex marriages
  343. ^ New Hampshire House Bill 1415, 2008
  344. ^ New Hampshire House Bill 453, 2009
  345. ^ New Hampshire House Overwhelmingly Rejects Attempt to Repeal Marriage Rights
  346. ^ Repealing New Hampshire’s Gay Marriage Law Is *Inexpedient To Legislate*
  347. ^ Anti-gay marriage bill defeated in Senate
  348. ^ New Hampshire House kills repeal of gay marriage law Archived March 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  349. ^ Maine Question 1, 2012
  350. ^ a b "Indiana General Assembly". In.gov. February 3, 2004. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  351. ^ "Resource record: Utah Puts Same-Sex Marriage Issue to Voters". Gis.state.mn.us. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  352. ^ "Senate gives final passage to marriage amendment". Enquirer.com. April 15, 2004. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  353. ^ "04RS SB245". Lrc.ky.gov. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  354. ^ "Same-sex marriage ban going to voters Nov. 8 - Houston Chronicle". Chron.com. May 22, 2005. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  355. ^ "Idaho HJR 2 - Marriage Amendment Ballot Question - Key Vote - Project Vote Smart". Votesmart.org. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  356. ^ SB 526 - Defining Marriage - Key Vote
  357. ^ HB 2381 - Marriage Definition Constitutional Amendment - Key Vote
  358. ^ JARED MILLER Star-Tribune capital bureau (February 7, 2009). "Gay marriage ban falls in House". Trib.com. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  359. ^ "West Virginia defeats marriage amendment | The Bilerico Project". Bilerico.com. March 31, 2009. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  360. ^ NIKI KELLY (January 29, 2010). "Amendment prohibiting gay marriage clears Senate". The Journal Gazette. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  361. ^ Garcia, Michelle (February 17, 2010). "NH House Rejects Gay Marriage Ban". Advocate.com. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  362. ^ Fankhauser, Chris (January 27, 2011). "Chadrad.com". Chadrad.com. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  363. ^ NC General Assembly webmasters. "North Carolina General Assembly - Senate Bill 514 Information/History (2011-2012 Session)". Ncga.state.nc.us. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  364. ^ Star Tribune, Tom Wallace (May 22, 2011). "Voters to determine the future of marriage, House decides". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  365. ^ Indiana 3rd Reading House Marriage Amendment ONLY
  366. ^ Carden, Dan (October 14, 2014). "Bosma declares marriage amendment dead". NWI. Retrieved October 17, 2014.
  367. ^ White, Ed (June 28, 2013). "Mich. ban on domestic partner benefits blocked". Pioneer Press. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
  368. ^ Lederman, Marty (July 1, 2013). "After Windsor: Michigan same-sex partners benefits suit advances". SCOTUSblog. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
  369. ^ Eckholm, Erik (December 20, 2013). "Federal Judge Rules That Same-Sex Marriage Is Legal in Utah". The New York Times.
  370. ^ Delaware Senate Defeats Gay Marriage Ban
  371. ^ Indiana House Passes Gay Marriage Ban
  372. ^ Indiana House amends marriage ban language
  373. ^ Indiana House approves constitutional amendment to ban gay marriages
  374. ^ Indiana Senate approves diluted gay marriage ban Archived February 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  375. ^ Iowa's governor-elect wants vote to ban gay marriage, criticizes senate leader
  376. ^ Minnesota Gay Marriage Ban Amendment Clears First Hurdle
  377. ^ Minnesota Gay Marriage Ban Amendment Clears House Panel
  378. ^ "Minn. Senate OKs Vote on Gay-Marriage Ban". The Wall Street Journal. May 11, 2011. Archived from the original on May 17, 2011.
  379. ^ "House sends same-sex marriage ban to 2012 ballot". Minnesota Public Radio. May 22, 2011.
  380. ^ NH House rejects two anti-gay marriage measures
  381. ^ N.H. House Rejects Gay Marriage Ban
  382. ^ [2] Archived January 4, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  383. ^ "SJR06". Nmlegis.gov. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  384. ^ "Bill Information (History) - House Bill 1349; Regular Session 2013-2014 - PA General Assembly". Legis.state.pa.us. May 8, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  385. ^ Daryl Metcalfe introduces anti-gay bill[permanent dead link]
  386. ^ Lawmakers Study Amendment Banning Gay Marriage Archived May 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  387. ^ W.Va. Gay Marriage Ban Fails in House Archived December 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  388. ^ West Virginia Senators David Nohe, Donna Boley Back Gay Marriage Ban
  389. ^ (Wyo.)-House Now Gets Chance At Gay Marriage Bill
  390. ^ Same-sex marriage constitutional amendment dies in Wyoming House after missing deadline[permanent dead link]
  391. ^ Full Results Archived October 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  392. ^ 291 Minn. 310 (Minn. 1971), 409 U.S. 810 (1972).
  393. ^ Baker v. Nelson, 409 810 (U.S. 1972) ("The appeal is dismissed for want of a substantial federal question.").
  394. ^ Cantor, Donald J.; et al. (2006). Same-Sex Marriage: The Legal and Psychological Evolution in America. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. pp. 117–8. ISBN 9780819568120. Kentucky Court of Appeals: Jones v. Callahan, November 9, 1973
  395. ^ "Gay Marriage’s Jewish Pioneer", Eli Sanders, The Tablet, June 6, 2012.
  396. ^ Dean v. District of Columbia Archived June 21, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  397. ^ Dean v. District of Columbia
  398. ^ Baehr v. Miike, Circuit Court for the First Circuit, Hawaii No. 91-1394
  399. ^ Oshiro, Sandra (December 6, 1996). "Hawaiian judge puts same-sex marriage ruling on hold". The Nation. Thailand: Reuter. p. A12. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
  400. ^ Baehr v. Lewin, 74 Haw. 530, 852 P.2d 44 (1993), reconsideration and clarification granted in part, 74 Haw. 645, 852 P.2d 74 (1993).
  401. ^ Baker v. Vermont, 744 A.2d 864 Archived March 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  402. ^ Brause v Alaska Dept of Health & Social Services (04/17/2001) sp-5392
  403. ^ Boston Globe: Decision: Hillary Goodridge & others vs. Department of Public Health & another, November 18, 2003, accessed March 19, 2011
  404. ^ Kiritsky, Laura (October 16, 2003). "Gay marriage setback in Arizona". Bay Windows. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  405. ^ "Arizona high court upholds same-sex marriage ban". The Advocate. May 27, 2004. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  406. ^ Same-Sex Marriage in Louisiana
  407. ^ Mary Li and Rebecca Kennedy, et al. v. State of Oregon, et al.
  408. ^ "Hernandez v Robles (2006 NY Slip Op 05239)". Courts.state.ny.us. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  409. ^ Perdue v. O'Kelley, 280 Ga. 732 (2006) Archived March 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  410. ^ http://www.courts.wa.gov/newsinfo/content/pdf/759341opn.pdf
  411. ^ Lewis v. Harris
  412. ^ Rich, Eric, and Wagner, John (September 18, 2007). "Maryland High Court Upholds Same-Sex Marriage Ban". Washington Post. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
  413. ^ Public Employers in Michigan May Not Offer Same-Sex Domestic Partner Benefits, Michigan Supreme Court Rules
  414. ^ Michigan high court says gay partners can't get health benefits
  415. ^ Text of the decision
  416. ^ Majority opinion
  417. ^ Iowa Supreme Court decision Archived March 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, page 15.
  418. ^ The court's ruling in Strauss
  419. ^ Grossman, Joanna L. (November 24, 2009). "New York's Highest Court Upholds Benefits for Same-Sex Spouses in Narrow Ruling".
  420. ^ Supreme Court of Wisconsin
  421. ^ Wyoming High Court Grants Divorce to Same-Sex Couple
  422. ^ Belczyk, Jaclyn (May 18, 2012). "Maryland high court grants same-sex divorce". The Jurist. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
  423. ^ "Domestic partnership registry lawsuit rejected", Green Bay Press Gazette Accessed 8 November 2009.
  424. ^ Judge rules Wisconsin same sex registry is constitutional
  425. ^ Marley, Patrick (December 21, 2012). "Wisconsin appeals court upholds domestic partner registry". Jsonline.com. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  426. ^ "Wisconsin Supreme Court upholds state's domestic partner registry". jsonline.com. July 31, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
  427. ^ "Montana Supreme Court rejects equal benefits for gay couples". Missoulian. December 18, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  428. ^ "ACLU sues state of Montana over benefits for gay couples". Missoulian. July 16, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
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  430. ^ Dwyer Arce (September 1, 2010). "Texas appeals court upholds same-sex marriage ban". JURIST - Paper Chase.
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  432. ^ Order for Supplementary Briefing by Texas Supreme Court July 3, 2013 Accessed July 8, 2013
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