Wailaki language

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Eel River
Native toUSA
EthnicityEel River Athapaskans
  • Sinkyone
  • Wailaki
  • Nongatl
  • Lassik
Language codes
ISO 639-3wlk

Wailaki, also known as Eel River, is an extinct Athabaskan language spoken by the people of the Round Valley Reservation of northern California, one of four languages belonging to the California Athabaskan cluster of the Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages. Dialect clusters reflect the four Wailaki-speaking peoples, the Sinkyone, Wailaki, Nongatl, and Lassik, of the Eel River confederation.


The sounds in Wailaki:


Bilabial Alveolar Lateral Palatal Velar Glottal
plain pal.
Plosive plain p t k ʔ
aspirated kʲʰ
ejective kʲʼ
Affricate plain (ts)
aspirated tʃʰ
ejective tsʼ tʃʼ
Fricative plain s ɬ ʃ h
voiced ɣ
Nasal (m) n ŋ
Approximant l j (w)

Sounds /m, ts, w/ are rather rare.


Vowels in Wailaki are /i e a o/, and with length as /iː eː aː oː/.


  1. ^ Wailaki at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Wailaki". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  • Goddard, Pliny E. (1923). "Wailaki Texts". International Journal of American Linguistics. 2 (3/4): 77–135. doi:10.1086/463738. JSTOR 1263274.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Seaburg, William R. (1977). "A Wailaki (Athapaskan) Text with Comparative Notes". International Journal of American Linguistics. 43 (4): 327–332. doi:10.1086/465503.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Begay, Kayla Rae (2017). Wailaki Grammar (Ph.D. thesis). University of California Berkeley.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External links

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